Update 2 for LIRA-SAPR 2020R3 is available. The following items are updated: stability, fire resistance, DCF, transverse reinforcement, METEOR, import of files, design strength of soil, analysis of truss joints, unification, punching shear, eccentricities of masses, support node, wall cleanup, snow load, piles, Generator
SAPFIR-Structures
Enhanced transfer of surface loads to VISOR-SAPR module.
Restored option to make a cleanup (manually) of the wall for the slab.
Restored option to define the snow load according to NP to SP RK EN 1991-1-3:2005/2017.
For the arroy of piles, it is possible to consider ratotion angle about the Z-axis that was defined in properties of the structure.
Enhanced option to copy storeys with stairs for which load values are defined.
Generator
New option to extract lines from the surface generated by formula with node 'SurfForm' - Defining the surface with formula.
Enhanced generation of lines in node 'JoinLn' - Connection of the specified lines in series.
Enhanced node 'StoreyPro' - Advanced generation of storeys at specified levels.
Combinations with dynamic load cases are ignored when you define the input data for fire resistance analysis (by DCL).
Enhanced analysis of reinforcement (with account of fire resistance) in shear force for the section with dimension >100 cm.
Modified generation of nonlinear stress-strain diagram for concrete for the DCF group A1 according to analysis results of reinforcement.
Enhanced option to assign types of pilot reinforcement (PR) to bars with account of symmetric/asymmetric reinforcement for columns and beams.
Modified analysis of transverse reinforcement in shear force for RC elements according to SP 63.13330.2012/2018.
Modified analysis of reinforcement by serviceability limit state for RC elements of circular/ring sections according to SP 63.13330.2012/2018.
In METEOR system, it is possible to delete several problems (at the same time) from the list of integrated problems.
Modified import of files *.stl, *.mesh, *.msh, *.obj, *.poly in 64-bit version of LIRA-SAPR.
Fixed bug: when for some imported loads the program did not compute design strength of soil at the level of load application.
Fixed bug in transferring loads to the SOIL system in case when number of groups of loads in *.lir file is less in comparison with the number of groups previously transferred and saved to *.sld file.
Analysis of reinforcement is restored for the integrated problem obtained by analysis rsults of METEOR system by DCF+.
Modified options to open and save RC materials for files from version 2021.
Fixed bug: account of local moment in analysis of truss joint.
Analysis of eccentrically compressed elements of I-section is modified for EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009.
New option to use unification for the integrated problems in METEOR system ('DCF+' mode).
Clarified analysis by DCL for punching shear contour according to SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011.
When the columns base is analysed, it is possible to apply bolts with diameter 80mm.
Fixed bug: program failure in case you edit design model and evaluate analysis results at the same time (in different program windows).
Fixed bug: in saving accidental eccentricities (eak) defined for dynamic load cases.
In the Steel tables ('Steel Rolled Shapes' module) it is possible to save additional columns with user-defined parameters of steel for different thickness values of rolled shapes (columns 15-20 in the table).
In analysis of support joint of truss from rectangular pipes, clarified calculation of forces on high strength bolts.
Update 1 for LIRA-SAPR 2020R3 is available. The following items are updated: integration with Autodesk Revit and Advance Steel, import of *.txt, Batch Analysis Mode, generation of nonlinear stiffness, measurement units, compatibility of files, progressive collapse, STO 36554501-006-2006, SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, METEOR (Method of unified complete result) - enhanced options for MODEL VARIATION system
SAPFIR-Structures
Eliminated incorrect duplication of load on slab when the meshed model is generated. The load was duplicated if the thickening was defined along the slab contour.
Enhanced generation of horizontal and vertical triangulation lines for the openings in the curvilinear walls.
Enhanced import of user-defined sections (generated with Cross-section Design Toolkit) to the project library of SAPFIR sections.
Enhanced option to edit the snap type for walls when the lower level of wall is defined from the storey top.
Restored option to edit trusses through the control points.
Restored option to edit the punching shear contour manually (option to move the points of the contour).
Interoperability
Corrected import of analysis results to the Autodesk Revit model, added import of selected reinforcement from LIRA-FEM program when you work with Ukrainian language interface.
Corrected export of certain built-up steel sections from VISOR-SAPR to the *.STP format (for integration with Advance Steel DStV PSS).
Unified graphic environment (VISOR-SAPR module)
Corrected error when the groups of coupled DOF are imported from the text file in case hinge supports for slabs are simulated.
Corrected imprecise presentation of the total intensity on mosaic plots of loads in case the surface loads are added to the block of loads when the elements are copied.
For the group of problems analysed in the Batch Analysis Mode, new option to check the pilot reinforcement for RC elements.
Enhanced algorithm for generation of physically nonlinear stiffness by results from analysis of reinforcement for elements:
for elements that became physically nonlinear, the following data is saved: input data for analyses of steel and RC elements, information about unification groups and structural elements;
when unification results for selected reinforcement are used together with piecewise linear stress-strain law (14), numerical values for parameters of nonlinear law are modified according to the current units of measurement.
Corrected option to convert the measurement units for nodal load of accelerogram type.
Corrected error in compatibility of files when you open problems in Demo version.
Steel Structures
In geometrically nonlinear problems with progressive collapse that are defined with dynamic factors (quasistatic), now it is possible to carry out analysis of steel structures by design combinations of forces (DCF).
Enhanced import of results of the static and dynamic analysis for certain steel elements in case more than 300 static load cases are defined for the problem.
Enhanced analysis of steel structures according to AISC LRFD 2nd edition for the axially tensile elements.
Clarified the shear force for bearing capacity of steel beam according to Eurocode 3.1.1 EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009.
Enhanced flexural-torsional buckling analysis of steel profiles according to Eurocode 3.1.1 EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009.
Reinforced Concrete Structures
Corrected analysis of reinforcement in plate elements with account of fire resistance according to STO 36554501-006-2006.
In analysis of RC elements, enhanced analysis according to SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011 'Design of RC structures'.
METEOR (Method of unified complete result)
METEOR (Method of unified complete result) Enhanced options for MODEL VARIATION system. For the problems united in METEOR system by design combinations of forces (DCF+), arbitrary order is allowed for time history analysis, static & dynamic analyses.
LIRA-SAPR 2020R3 is available. The following options and features are updated: SP 63.13330.2018, SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, TKP EN 1992-1-1-2009, SP 16.13330.2017, SP RK EN 1990:2020+À1:2005/2011, input tables, .saf, .ifc, piecewise linear diagram, option to select group of forces, types of pilot reinforcement (PR), option to replace stiffnesses, time history analysis, total coefficient, collection of masses, piers, option to unite loads, dead weight, loads per r.m., nonlinear stiffnesses, super-elements, analysis on specific/emergency loads, ultimate deflection, beam-to-column connection, rigid column base, joints from rectangular pipes, P-delta effect, account of slenderness ratio, pylon, fire resistance analysis, Report Book, DCL, FE of soil, bar analogues, new steel tables in Local mode for analysis of steel structures, Cross-section Design Toolkit module.
SAPFIR-Structures
Corrected options to create and edit the opening in the wall if 'Invert' option is defined for 'Orientation'.
Enhanced option to correct location of the opening by line into walls if the generation of opening was cancelled with Esc button.
Enhanced option to generate PRB in cases when parameter 'Search for intersections' (accuracy) several times greater than parameter 'Unions' (accuracy).
Enhanced option to generate PRB for walls.
New option to automatically update model after 'end cleanup' is cancelled.
Corrected error in generation of punching shear contours below the floor slab level.
For the SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, default parameters for generation of punching shear contours are modified, k=2.
Enhanced option to determine the plate thickness if the 'Plate' option if defined as analytical interpretation of the beam.
New option to automatically update analytical model of inclined slab when the slab is modified through the control points.
Enhanced option to define the earthquake by SP 14.13330.2014/2018 (56).
Large panel buildings
New option to save initial length of the axial line of the wall when joints are generated.
Corrected behaviour of the horizontal joint for the case when in the opening in wall parameter 'Vertical lines of triangulation' is defined.
Enhanced option to generate intersections in the meshed model for the special elements of springs.
Generator
Enhanced option to generate block of nodes.
Enhanced arrangement of nodes on the canvas for the 'Unite/Split block' commands.
New option to snap the lower level of walls and columns to the intermediate level of the storey.
Interoperability
Input tables:
corrected option: sign for the unification angle (relative to the local X1-axis of the plate) in the input tables 'Local axes of plates' and 'Axes of orthotropy for plates' in some cases of orientation for plates;
clarified column headings for the input tables 'Local axes of plates' and 'Axes of orthotropy for plates'.
For import from SAF, enhanced option to recognize the level for analytical model of slabs.
New option to import capitals from the IFC file.
Enhanced recognition of openings in prisms when IFC file is imported.
Unified graphic environment VISOR-SAPR
New option to automatically generate nonlinear stress-strain diagrams for the main material (concrete) and reinforcement according to the data defined in analysis of RC structures. In earlier versions, nonlinear diagrams were presented with combination from 11/15 exponential diagrams for reinforcement and concrete. Now it is possible to flexibly manage the process of diagram generation:
to select the diagram 11/15 (exponential) or 14 (piecewise linear);
to select the DCF group for which the further analysis of A1, B1, C1 and D1 should be carried out. Rules for generation of material diagrams depends on the purpose of analysis, namely: to determine values for max stress and relative strain;
when the diagram is generated, all necessary partial safety factors defined in material for RC structures are considered;
in the comment to the diagram, there is a description, e.g. B25 group D1, that is, material properties for concrete class B25 are used in the diagram with all necessary set of partial safety factors for the strength analysis on specific/emergency combinations;
new option to generate nonlinear problem even if there is no unification of reinforcement. In earlier version it was mandatory. Types of pilot reinforcement (PR) may be used as reinforcement in nonlinear analyses.
Option to replace stiffness by data from analysis of RC structures
Design model with the generated nonlinear stiffness according to the data from analysis of reinforcement
Corrected option to open analysis results for the problems with time history analysis if the problem has more than 1000 check time points.
Corrected option to generate the text file with the list of elements in cases when the list contains deleted elements.
IMPORTANT. In release R3 there is a new option to take account of total coefficient to stages when masses are collected in order to carry out dynamic analysis by method of decomposition by natural mode shapes of vibrations as well as time history analysis. To take into account the total coefficient to stages, select appropriate option in the 'Model nonlinear load cases' dialog box. Masses are not collected for the additional load cases defined to assemblage stages.
Corrected error in presentation of icons and colour markers in the 'Stiffness and materials' dialog box when you work with Windows fonts of different scales.
In the 'Define and edit types of pilot reinforcement (PR)' dialog box, when the 'generate PR types by reinforcement palette' option is active, corrected error that caused increase in area of one rebar (as multiples of number of rebars).
Enhanced algorithm for auto division into rectilinear groups of piers if the precision for model geometry is specified.
Corrected option to unite loads when two triangular plates are united into quadrilateral one and the situation when loads are copied with the 'Information about node or element' tool.
For modal analysis, new option to display mosaic plot with weights of masses.
Enhanced control when the dead weight is assigned at assemblage stages; the weight assigned earlier in other assemblage stages is removed. This rule is not applied to the after-stage load cases.
Corrected option to display the load values per r.m. in case the group includes elements with modulus of elasticity equal to zero.
New option to automatically update the current palette for mosaic plots with subgrade moduli, pile stiffness, bearing capacity, in case the input data is modified and the data is computed once again.
FEM-Solver
Corrected error that caused inaccurate generation of data for the nonlinear stiffness.
Restored option to define the pack precision for nodes and arrangement precision for super-elements (SE).
Arrangement precision for super-elements
Steel Structures
In tables of analysis results there are warnings for the case when incorrect combinations of steel and appropriate thickness are used in check/selection of sections.
For the elements of 'truss' type, new option to define the partial safety factor for analysis on specific/emergency combinations.
For the elements of 'beam' type, new option to manage the ultimate deflection in analysis on specific combinations. In earlier versions, this value was accepted by default as equal to 1/50L.
Modified work with the 'Forces' dialog box in the local mode for analysis of joints and elements.
In analysis of beam-to-column connection:
modified algorithm to select number of bolts along the height of the beam web, fixed joint with angle and with plate;
modified length of angle, pinned joint with angle and fixed joint with angle;
initial distance between bolts across the action of transverse forces is accepted as min (1.3*D, where it is possible, earlier it was accepted as equal to 1.5*D);
clarified option to determine partial safety factor for the bolted joint Yb according to the table 41 SP 16.13330.2017.
In analysis of rigid column base, corrected error that occurred when the base is pulled out (uplifting) and in the presence of specific/emergency combinations, the error referred to an incorrect determination of design resistance of bolts.
In analysis of truss joints from rectangular pipes, enhanced algorithm to determine slope angle of elements included into the joint for the case when geometry is transferred to the local mode of analysis of the main model.
clarified how the structural deformation influences internal moments in columns (P-delta effect);
corrected utilization ratio for the cross-section in analysis on compression.
Reinforced Concrete Structures
For the building code SP 63.13330.2018:
for statically determined structures, corrected option to take account of random eccentricity;
when the slenderness ratio is considered, clarified analysis of stresses from the long-time part of loads;
when analysis type 'pylon' is used, in bar elements account of slenderness ratio is corrected;
corrected option to select forces for fire resistance analysis;
added option to apply partial safety factors for concrete of arbitrary class in analysis on specific/emergency combinations;
updated design parameters of steel class A400.
For the building code SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011:
the effects of the deformed geometry (second-order effects) were recovered;
when materials are defined for analysis, by default, coefficients from the National Annex are used.
Corrected error when computing KÇ by strength for the building code TKP EN 1992-1-1-2009.
Documentation system
Corrected option to generate the input data tables for the large problems.
Corrected option to generate the input data tables 'Reinforced concrete'.
DCL (design combinations of loads)
For the building code SP RK EN 1990:2020+À1:2005/2011:
when the input data for the DCL table is defined, it is possible to indicate which loads were defined in the design model – design values or normative ones;
when several standard combinations of loads are added, in the DCL name there will be a label that indicates whether this combination belongs to a certain group of combinations (I-VII);
corrected option to generate specific/emergency load cases.
IMPORTANT. Sect.4.29 is taken into account according to requirements of EN8. Bending moments at the joints of structural elements of beams and columns are corrected for the whole earthquake combination, rather than only for the forces obtained from the earthquake load. This requirement is also considered in analysis by quasistatic method when inertial forces from the earthquake load are defined as the input data, that is, as the load on nodes and elements of the model.
SOIL
Corrected error in extrapolation of soil model; the error caused application instability.
Corrected triangulation procedure when 2D FE of soil are generated.
Bar analogues
Clarified calculation of forces in bar analogues for the type of section 'angle'.
For the short part of wall, enhanced option to determine angle of pure rotation when bar analogues (BA) are generated.
SRS-SAPR (steel rolled shapes, steel tables)
New steel tables of local steel structures mode according to STÎ 02494680-073-2020:
C-shaped 'Akfabuid';
Channel sections, steel bent equal-leg 'Akfabuid';
Z-shaped 'Akfabuid'.
Cross-section Design Toolkit
In the 'Sectional view' dialog box, new option to indicate dimensions and display values on diagrams.
Cross-section ( dialog boõ 'Sectional view')
Enhanced work with dialog boxes 'Hatching', 'Texts'.
LIRA-SAPR 2020R2 is available. Updated options and features: Autodesk Revit, input tables, Rayleigh damping coefficients, warping and shear stiffness, strength of joint in short-term and long-term loads, nominal strain, load from disassembled elements, option to copy objects, relative displacements, skew of storeys, relative deflection, safety factor, elevations, grid lines, animation of displacements, design level, kinematic constraints of nodes PRB, option to save settings, unification of bars, contour lines, structural elements (StE), residual stiffness, SP RÊ EN 1998-1:2004/2012, NTP RÊ 08-01.1-2017, SP 14.13330.2018 (with Modification ¹1), method of summing up CQC, Report Book, DCF, time history analysis, problem integration, analysis on progressive collapse, No. of FE type, analysis of heat flow, fire resistance
SAPFIR-Structures
Option to save the settings for user interface: shortcut keys, location of floating windows, contents of the toolbars/menus/shortcut menus for the graphic window/'Library' and 'Sheets' windows. Default settings defined in the 'SAPFIR preferences' and 'Visualization options' dialog boxes may be also saved.
Program and interface settings may be saved
Wind load is collected automatically, analysis of load from snow mound is provided according to NTP RK 01-01-3.1(4.1)-2017 to SP RK EN 1991-1-3:2003/2011 and SP RK EN 1991-1-4:2003/2011. Limitations on min/max values of coefficient µ as well as limitations on min/max distance B are introduced.
For the snow mound tool, architectural (physical) presentation of snow across the roof area is added.
SP RK EN 1990:2002+A1:2005/2011 is supported for analysis by DCL.
Option to define the earthquake load in new dynamic modules (61) Earthquake for SP RK EN 1998-1:2004/2012, NTP RK 08-01.1-2017 (Kazakhstan), (62) Earthquake SP 14.13330.2018 with Modifications No.1 (RF).
Earthquake load may be defined by new dynamic modules
In 'Filter by parameters' there is a new option for special elements.
Filter by parameters for special elements
Enhanced dynamic presentation when the opening is moved within the beam system.
Corrected error in computing the pile stiffness when the data is transferred to VISOR-SAPR module.
Relocation of the building along the height (defined in properties for the building) is considered when levels for masonry reinforcing structures are defined.
Enhanced 'Undo' command for cases when the drawing was generated in the empty document and the objects were added on the drawing, and to apply the load to the object contour.
Enhanced option to define support/boundary conditions for columns in which analytical presentation were shifted from the centre in the 'Editable analytics' mode.
Restored option to define support/boundary conditions when generating triangulation lines in analytical model.
Restored option to cancel generation of offsets for the group of columns and beams.
Large panel buildings
Stiffness (per running metre) of the joint is analysed in live and short-term load, new option to take account of creep. Data about computed strength of joint per r.m. is transferred to VISOR-SAPR module, graphically the data may be displayed with mosaic plot ('Advanced edit options' ribbon tab, 'Geometric & properties' tab).
Bearing capacity of joint analysis in short-term and long-term load
Generator
Node for IFC import: enhanced tracing for modification of objects like window, door, opening.
Node 'Inclined slab': added option to graphically define the slope vector.
Node 'Generate storeys at defined levels': new option to generate the upper storey with the same height as the previous one. So, it is possible to define N levels (rather than N+1 as it was earlier) for N storeys.
New option to automatically 'freeze' node of storeys when the whole model is 'baked'.
Interoperability
Plugin for two-way integration with Autodesk Revit is customized for Revit 2021.
New options are provided for input tables:
new input tables are added:
parameters of bars (Offsets in bars, Local axes of bars, Hinges);
parameters of plates (Local axes of plates, Offsets in plates, Axes of orthotropy for plates);
parameters of nodes (PRB, Coupled DOF, Local axes of nodes).
data exchange between active problem files;
API tools are provided for all tables.
To import analytical models through the SAF format, steel sections and steel properties are now recognized.
To import floor plans DXF, restored option to determine direction of the staircase by arranging the circle at the side from which the rise begins.
To import through the IFC format, the following modifications are made:
corrected option to recognize the sections of multi-span beams and rotation angle for the section;
added option to import curvilinear beams;
enhanced option to import walls and slabs saved to the IFC file as the layer IfcBuildingElementPart;
corrected option to generate several openings at the same place when walls and slabs with openings are imported.
Unified graphic environment VISOR-SAPR
Rayleigh damping coefficients are computed for the range of frequencies to consider the damping effect in time history analysis.
Calculation of warping and shear stiffness for the built-up steel sections based on geometry defined from the library of steel sections.
Stiffness analysis of the built-up section
To evaluate the input/output data, the following mosaic plots are added:
strength of joint per r.m. in live and short-term load;
Mosaic plot for strength of joint per r.m. in short-term load
lengths of structural elements;
nominal strain Eps min/max, max stress in main material of the section for bars and plates in physically nonlinear problems;
Mosaic plot for max nominal strain in the bottom layer for elements of the floor slab
mosaic plot and vectors of loads from disassembled elements in analysis of assemblage problems and in analysis on progressive collapse.
Reactions from disassembled elements of the model
New option to copy objects along the vector.
Option to copy structural elements. If structural elements are completely included into the element that is copied, then new structural elements will be generated during copy procedure.
New option to compute absolute and relative deformation as well as the skew angle between the two specified nodes of deformed model.
Relative displacements of nodes in design model
Option to compute relative deflection between support nodes.
Relative deflection in floor slab
In the DCF/DCL tables of input data for SP 20.13330.2016, new option to define the safety factor separately for specific combinations (earthquake and specific, except earthquake load cases).
New option to define the height elevations in dimetric and isometric projections.
New options to visualize grid lines - in isometric projection it is possible to define the length of grid lines and distance between them, to make tags transparent, to define one-sided tags and dimensions. Grip area (allowed gap) may be defined to find elements and nodes located in the plane of grid line.
New settings for the 'Grid lines and height elevations' dialog box
Animation of displacements, mode shapes/buckling modes with different vibration scale in the main window.
Animation of displacements, mode shapes/buckling modes with different vibration scale
New option to generate design levels for the model fragment. Now you could define piers for the part of design model and do not intersect triangulation mesh for the whole model.
In the 'Display' dialog box, on the 'Nodes' panel, new flag of drawing 'PRB as line segments' is added. When this check box is selected, kinematic constraints between slave nodes and master node will be displayed on the model.
PRB as line segments
Option to save the settings for flags of drawing (location of sliders, coefficients, smoothing angle) for the current problem.
New option to define the stiffness of the joint per running metre in live and short-term loads, and to import these parameters from SAPFIR module.
Option to unite bars with the same uniformly-distributed load into one FE.
Option to envelope contour lines of plates and solids with account of borders between different stiffness values of structural blocks.
Option to envelope contour lines of plates and solids with account of borders between different stiffness values of structural blocks
No limitation to generate structural elements for FE 309.
For assemblage problems, it is possible to move the after-stage load cases in the 'Edit load cases' dialog box.
Corrected error in setting the ranges of the scale for parameters of cracks.
New options to export/import the settings for location of input/output/text/documentation files on the disk; to set measurement units, parameters for modification and visualization, parameters for scales of input/output data; to define colours for objects of the model and contour plots, analysis parameters (statics and dynamics, design, analysis of reinforcement), number of significant digits for the figures on the model.
Residual stiffness values are displayed after any nonlinear analysis rather than only after 'NL Engineering 2'».
On the 'Nonlinear stiffness' ribbon panel, the following mosaic plots for the output data are added (in previous versions they were available only on the drop-down menu):
Flexural and membrane stiffness of plates: mosaic plots for modulus of elasticity along the unified local X1 and Y1-axes; mosaic plots for Poisson's ratio along the unified local X1 and Y1-axes; mosaic plots for shear modulus.
Stiffness of bar FE: mosaic plot for axial stiffness, flexural stiffness about the local Y1 and Z1-axes, shear stiffness along the Y1 and Z1-axes, torsional stiffness.
Stiffness of finite element of joint with account of nonlinear behaviour (FE 258, 259): mosaic plot for modulus of elasticity and shear modulus.
Stiffness for two-node FE of elastic spring with account of ultimate forces (FE 255): mosaic plot for stiffness (per running metre) of restraints in axial compression (tension) along the local X1, Y1, Z1-axis, mosaic plot for stiffness (per running metre) of restraints in torsion about the local X1, Y1, Z1-axis).
Mosaic plot for modulus of elasticity (flexural stiffness of plates)
Mosaic plot for modulus of elasticity FE 258, 259
New dynamic module No.61 – analysis on earthquake load according to SP RK EN 1998-1:2004/2012, NTP RK 08-01.1-2017.
New dynamic module No.62 – analysis on earthquake load according to SP 14.13330.2018, with Modification No.1.
Calculation of total components by the CQC method (full quadratic sum). CQC method is used to calculate DCF/DCL, to generate the output tables and in all design modules of the program.
Documentation system
The stiffness table now contains values for stiffness per running metre and rotational stiffness for 1-node FE of pile (FE57), values for stiffness of joint per running metre in live and short-term loads.
Generating design combinations of forces (DCF)
New option to generate the DCF in problems with time history analysis: to consider coefficient of responsibility for building/structure, to generate the DCF for pre-history of dynamic load (group A1) and to select group of forces for dynamic load case (group B1 for analysis on wind pulsation, harmonic load; group C1 – earthquake analysis, accelerograms; group D1 – analysis on emergency load, explosion, impact, failure of elements in analysis on progressive collapse).
How to define input data for DCF in problems with time history analysis
For the problems with step-type method, it is possible to generate groups of DCF. Group may be selected for every loading history (groups A1-D1 and A2-D2).
To sum up components of the earthquake loads, the ÑQC method is realized (full quadratic sum).
Problem integration
New option to unite force combinations for time history analysis problems with service combinations and to obtain the total DCF table to carry out further design procedure. For example, to generate the envelope DCF for problems with different scenarios of progressive collapse.
New option to unite DCF generated for physically nonlinear problems.
When generating the integrated problem, the program applies table of correspondence for FE types. For example, in one of the integrated problems the bar may be presented as FE 10 while in another integrated problem - as FE 310.
Progressive collapse
In design modules for analysis of reinforced concrete structures and steel structures, it is possible to use normative properties of materials and set of partial safety factors in analysis on specific/emergency load combinations (group D1), it is not necessary to generate the user-defined materials. During analysis of reinforcement, in material properties there is an option to manage the ultimate values of nominal strain for concrete and reinforcement.
In local mode of STC-SAPR module, new type of force is introduced - 'specific'. It is used in analysis of sections and joints of steel structures on emergency loads, including progressive collapse.
In local mode of STC-SAPR module, for the elements of 'beam' type there is a special check for deflections on emergency load combinations. By default, deflection value is limited with 1/50 from the span value.
New system 'Progressive collapse' in LIRA-SAPR 2020 enables the user to carry out analysis of structures on progressive collapse. Video on our channel
SOIL
Corrected order for presentation of boreholes and loads on soil model.
Thermal analysis
Analysis of heat flow in thermal analysis problems, summing up the heat flow for selected load cases.
Fire resistance
Enhanced division of section into elementary areas for analysis of fire resistance, it helps to improve the accuracy with which the temperature is determined.
Distribution of temperature across the section area
Update 1 for LIRA-SAPR 2020R1 is available. Updated options and features: fragment from SAPFIR, *.csv tables, Time History Analysis, DirectX graphics, 'Method 10%', AMD processor, fire resistance, surface loads, 6th DOF, safety factor.
Interoperability
Enhanced options: recognition of multi-span beams when importing the *.ifc file and restoring their geometry in the case the Boolean operations were applied to the beams in the source file.
Enhanced import of *.dxf floor plans: generating windows, walls and partitions. If a layer was assigned the corresponding layer name in AutoCad and the objects were drawn along the contour (walls, columns, piles), then the 'Contour' option is automatically set for the import to SAPFIR module.
Fixed: difference in storey heights when importing *.ifc and LiraKM files from Revit.
Restored: option to import several *.ifc files into separate projects during one work session.
SAPFIR-Structures
Fixed: recovery of the physical model *.spf file according to the meshed model *.lir file if there were layers and storey levels in the meshed model.
Added: option to define the ice load for columns.
Settings for the line weight for columns may be also applied to capitals.
In addition to the previous options to define the snow mound according to SP 20.13330.2016, now it is also possible to define the snow mound according to SP 20.13330.2011. Parameters defined in calculator (building code, snow area and parapet height) may be saved to use further during the work session.
Fixed: generation of load from soil pressure in case there are openings in walls.
Fixed: thickness of column base is transferred to VISOR-SAPR module correctly.
Enhanced: snap of the premises to intermediate levels of storey.
Fixed: duplicate beams included in the beam system when the meshed model is generated.
Large panel buildings
Restored: FE of platform joints located in the wall openings are automatically excluded from the analytical model.
Design of RC structures
Added: rebars may be located along the pile height.
Restored: types of pilot reinforcement (PRT) for walls created in Design of RC structures module may be transferred to VISOR-SAPR module.
Restored: the spacing of the studs and bend to the stud for wall reinforcement may be defined as default values. Class of reinforcement and the diameter of studs are added to default settings.
Added: support of GOST 34028-2016 for individual rebars and reinforcing items.
For the section by model of wall reinforcement, tag leaders are not generated for rebars that are not included in the section.
Restored: reinforcing items (L-shaped elements, U-shaped elements) may be generated on the plans of vertical elements and on 2D detail views of wall reinforcement.
Enhanced: presentation of wall reinforcement on 3D view for cases when the wall is snapped to the left or to the right of the axis.
Added: the type of anchorage at the ends may be selected for a group of rebars in the model of beam reinforcement.
Fixed: presentation of main reinforcement in the slab along the X-axis and along the Y-axis.
Generator
Enhanced option to copy loads that are defined as a property of the slab when the 'Multi-copy by storeys' node is used.
Fixed: snap of the base point of the door when copying the door node.
Fixed: warnings from OS when the fragment from SAPFIR module is added to LIRA-FEM project and then the model is packed.
Corrected: table with results of reinforcement for RC elements in the *.csv format for problems where analysis results are saved in a separate folder (selected option).
Fixed: warnings from OS when work with the 'Edit load cases' dialog box if there is no load case with the damping properties (for problems with Time History Analysis).
For DirectX-based graphics mode, clarified recalculation of overall dimensions for the structure when new nodes are added to the model.
Mosaic plots of nonlinear stiffness for 2-node FE of elastic springs with account of ultimate forces (FE 255) is still visualized when the load case number is changed.
Fixed: possible errors on English versions of Windows OS in case Cyrillic names of *.LIR files are used when you work in the English interface of LIRA-SAPR.
Corrected: endless DCF calculation when 'Method 10 %' is used to compute the total component of dynamic load (for problems with earthquake load cases).
Fixed: possible abnormal termination of DCF calculation (for computers with AMD processors with a large number of logical processors (more than 20)).
Fixed: initial presentation of super-elements in the active window for DirectX based graphics when super-elements were added to design model.
Enhanced: presentation of mosaic plots with fire resistance parameters for RC bars specified with account of fire resistance.
Restored: contour lines of plates are redrawn when visualization parameters for offsets in plates are modified in the 'Offsets in plates' dialog box.
Fixed: correction factor for a surface load is considered when load cases are copied.
Clarified: FE analysis results for wall-beams with the sixth DOF (rotation about the local Y1-axis).
Corrected: difference in safety factors obtained in analysis of pilot reinforcement in VIZOR-SAPR module and in local mode of reinforcement for the element (for DBN B.2.6-98:2009).
Progressive Collapse; Bar Analogues; Collection of loads from snow, ice and soil pressure; Collection of loads from the floor slab to the beam system; Enhanced tools for triangulation; New node for import of IFC model with option to evaluate changes; High-precision finite elements; The sixth degree of freedom (DOF) for shells; Mass condensation; Iterative FE of the platform joint; API in FEM-editor of LIRA-FEM (VISOR); Option to define and edit loads applied to FEM with SAPFIR tools.
Interoperability
Autodesk Revit
New version introduces enhanced options of two-way integration with Autodesk Revit:
export from Revit with the option to select part of the model that should be transferred to LIRA-SAPR. It saves time significantly when developing a project of combined systems as well as multi-section buildings / structures. It will also be useful for any local calculations;
new option to transfer distributed loads across an area with holes, as well as with different variants for nesting levels of the load contours (e.g. the live load on the floor slab is applied across the whole area, while the internal load contour for the stair-elevator joint is defined with a load of different intensity);
import of curvilinear walls;
export of the output data with selected reinforcement only for the part of design model.
Tekla Structures 2019(i)
Two-way converter Tekla Structures 2019(³) – LIRA-SAPR – Tekla Structures 2019(³). It enables the user to carry out complete analysis and desifn of steel and RC sructures.
*.SLI
Loads applied to plate elements and distributed across the trapezium are added to algorithm for import/export *.SLI files.
*.SAF
Import of *.SAF files: development is started (analytical model ArchiCAD/Allplan)
Input tables
New options are available for input tables:
data may be transferred between active problem files;
new tables where the user could define parameters for elastic foundation (subgrade moduli for plate FEs, bar FEs and specific elements for simulating the soil resistance outside the foundation plate);
tables where the user could define the stiffness of the elements in the model (standard, steel, steel & reinforced concrete and numerical types of stiffness) and parameters that describe nonlinear stress-strain diagrams for the main and reinforcing materials;
API tools are provided for all available tables.
SAPFIR-Structures
Collection of loads
In addition to previous options to automatically collect wind loads, generate pulsation load cases, define earthquake and generate moving load, in version 2020 there is an option define automatically the snow mound, ice load, soil pressure onto the walls of the basement. Enhanced options to generate the wind load, option to generate load according to Eurocode EN 1991-1-4:2005 and NP 2.2.1 to SP RK EN 1991-1-4:2005/2011. It is also possible to automatically collect loads on beams.
Analysis of load from the snow mound is carried out for the 2D roof with parapet and roof parts that are adjacent to the ventilation shafts that rise above the roof and other superstructures. The load is computed according to the following building codes: SNIP 2.01.07-85, SP 20.13330.2016, DBN B.2.1.2-2006 3.1(2007), NP to SP RK EN 1991-1-1:2003/2011. The load value depends on the snow region, height of the structure above the roof, coefficient taking into account the snow drift and thermal coefficient. Width of the snow mound is calculated automatically. Optionally, you can apply snow load to the space across the whole site limited by the contour and the snow mound. The contours of the structures above the roof may be arbitrary. The load from the snow mounds is automatically transformed into the surface load.
How to define the snow mounds in SAPFIR module
The ice load is computed according to SP 20.13330.2016 according to the ice thickness, height of the structure and element sections. The ice load is automatically applied to bars of the structure (when the meshed model is generated) and is automatically updated (when either parameters of ice load or geometry of physical model are modified).
How to define parameters for the ice load
Intensity of soil pressure is computed by Manual on design of retaining walls and basement walls (Reference manual to SNIP 2.09.03-85) according to specified parameters: unit weight of backfill soil, angle of internal friction, unit cohesion of backfill soil, slope angle of design plane (wall, sheet piling), slope angle of the soil surface and friction angle of the soil in contact with design plane, grade elevation, ground water table and uniformly distributed load applied to surface.
After analysis, three load cases are generated. They include intensity of the active soil pressure, intensity of additional horizontal soil pressure due to the groundwater, and intensity of the horizontal soil pressure from the uniformly distributed load located on the surface of the failure wedge. Computed soil pressure is applied to the previously selected walls in the underground part of the building. Optionally, you can generate one load case with all three loads. If it is necessary, to modify the load from the soil, you could modify the pressure and update the meshed model - the load from the soil will be updated automatically. It is possible to generate several sets of input data to compute the soil pressure values.
How to define parameters to create the load from soil pressure
New tool that enables the user to collect loads from the slab surface and redistribute it to beams. The input data contains load that should be transformed to linear one and applied to load-bearing beams. Then select beam supports, select the load case from which the load should be collected and the load case where redistributed loads should be applied to, define the method for load visualization – linear loads or equivalent concentrated loads. Redistributed loads may be applied not only to the meshed model but as the input data for the physical model as well; it enables the user to carry out such analysis and do not miss created load on beams in further updates of the meshed model. Beam structural system may have arbitrary shape.
For the wind load, in addition to the option to collect and apply the load at the level of floor slabs, there is the option to apply 3D wind pressure to the whole structure.
Option to snap the load to the storey bottom/top and to additional levels. When the elevation or the storey height is modified, or the elevation of additional levels is modified, these modifications will be considered in the load.
Enhanced options for the 'Attach object' command. Now it is possible to 'attach' load along the contour (with or without relocation from contour borders). When the contour of the main object is modified, the load is also modified. To the whole object – when the overall dimension of the main object is modified, the load will reproduce its contour. By object level – when the elevation of the main object is modified, the load will 'follow' the object.
New option to generate design combinations of loads (DCL) according to EN 1991-1-4:2005.
In properties for the project, three safety factors are added: for the ultimate and serviceability limit states, and for emergency combination (for DBN). Safety factors are transferred to appropriate cells in the DCF table and DCL table in VISOR-SAPR module.
SAPFIR 2020: Collection of loads
Triangulation
All methods of triangulation are speeded up due to multithreaded environment. The speed depends on the number of physical processor cores. Triangulation of every new plate is a separate process, so all cores of computer are used. For the 'Quadrilateral' triangulation, there is new parameters 'Fast mesh generation'; it further accelerates the process.
In previous versions, triangulation of slabs with large area took much time. In version 2020, for such cases, a new option appeared in the properties of the user-defined triangulation line - cutting line. This option assumes that the slab will be cut into separate parts along this triangulation line. Triangulation of such parts will be much faster.
Triangulation of the near-support zone
For user-defined triangulation lines, it is now possible to define division (approximation step) inside the line. For triangulation lines there are expanded options to copy, symmetry, both within the same floor slab and for other slabs in the building. Thus, it is possible to define a template from the triangulation lines, then save this template to the SAPFIR library and use further in both current and other projects.
In properties for openings (windows and doors), new option to create horizontal and vertical triangulation lines. This option enables the user to crate rays from the opening up to the wall edges from characteristic lines that will be further used as levelling lines for triangulation.
Triangulation step may be defined denser for the near-support zone, for example, floor slab to column connection. In column properties now you could define the step for triangulation points that will be use near support, number of rows for points with fixed step and total number of rows for triangulation points. After the rows with the fixed triangulation step, the program creates several rows with transitional step in order to moderate transition from the dense mesh above the support to the sparse mesh in the span.
SAPFIR 2020: Intersection and triangulation
Finite elements
In SAPFIR 2020, one more step has been taken to generate complete meshed model without VISOR-SAPR module. It is possible to define explicitly FE 55 for simulating elastic spring, FE 62 for damping elements, FE 10 numerical for arbitrary 3D bar, FE 56 for 1-node FE. For all special FEs, stiffness is defined and the intersection is made automatically when the meshed model is generated.
How to define FE 55 for elements
For the objects of wall and slab type it is possible to select the type of FE that will simulate this object: FE 44/42 – shell, FE 19/12 – slab, FE 27/24 – arbitrary wall-beam, FE 30/22 – wall-beam, FE 47/46 – thick shell, FE 17/16 – thick slab, FE 59/58 (FE 258/259) – linear and nonlinear elements of platform joint, FE 344/342 – geometrically nonlinear shell, and orthotropic FE of shell, slab, wall-beam. For the objects of column and beam type it is possible to select the following FE types: FE 1, 2, 3, 4, bar FE of 2D truss, frame, grillage and 3D truss, FE 7 – 3D bar thin-walled FE with account of warping in the section, FE 10 – arbitrary 3D bar, FE 207-208 – physically nonlinear 2-node FE of precompression and pretension, FE 310 – geometrically nonlinear arbitrary 3D bar (cable). To selected FE type you could assign stiffness explicitly in VISOR-SAPR terms and the comments to the stiffness.
How to define FE type for columns and coefficients to stiffness
How to define FE type for walls and coefficients to stiffness
For a foundation slab on natural soil, it is possible to define the stiffness for horizontal springs or to calculate it automatically. As a result, FE 56 are created at nodes of the foundation slab; they simulate the friction between concrete and the soil. To calculate the stiffness of FE 56, the coefficient of friction between concrete and the soil and the allowable static deformation are defined. It is possible to limit the number of calculated stiffness values. Soil pressure Pz may be either numerically specified or calculated according to DCL.
How to define FE 56 with stiffness calculated automatically
Analytical model
New option to align one object for another. This command enables the user to generate accurate analytical model if the physical (architectural) model was generated with certain inaccuracies.
Curvilinear objects may be unified automatically, for example, curvilinear slab by curvilinear wall. It enables the user to obtain the same unified approximation step for objects when he meshed model is generated. And then a regular triangulation mesh as well.
Parametric beam system (array of beams) may be generated. The step and section of beams are defined in both directions. For every group of beams, a complete set of beam parameters is available. Beam system may be of arbitrary shape, horizontal or inclined. The slope angle of the beam system depends on the direction vector. In a regular step it is possible to define an individual step, different from the general one. Optionally, loads on beams may be defined. The load may be either distributed along the contour (then it will be collected on beams with appropriate algorithm) or linearly distributed along each beam.
Beam system
Elements in the meshed model may be intersected by actual volumes of objects. New settings for intersections enable the user not to worry about such parameters as ration of pylon sides, precision for search of intersections and other detailed settings for intersections.
Number of design sections of bars in columns, beams and elements of trusses may be defined. Number of sections may be defined either for all projects (in SAPFIR settings) or individually for every object.
Lintel above the opening in wall may be defined automatically. You could define all necessary data for more accurate simulation of this model fragment (section of lintel, material, indents from opening). Lintel is automatically updated when you edit dimensions of the opening.
How to define the lintel above the opening
New option to simulate the strip foundation with the Wall and Beam tools. For selected walls, define the width, height of the strip, material and the necessary design parameters. Click the Create button to generate the strip foundation that is connected to an existing wall. When the wall is modified, the foundation is automatically updated.
SAPFIR 2020: Physical and analytical model
For windows and doors, new method of generation 'by line segment' is added. It enables you to graphically define the width of the opening (it is helpful when openings are generated on *.dxf underlays).
New command 'Move to current storey'; it saves the geometric location of the object in the space. The object is moved only within the project structure by storeys if by mistake the object was generated on another storey.
For the 'Eye drop properties' command, new option to apply the copied properties to the group of objects.
Triangulation of the capital is modified. Now the capital is triangulated with triangulation step for the slab if an individual triangulation (different from triangulation of the whole model) was defined for this slab.
Analysis results in SAPFIR
From version 2020, the meshed model generated in SAPFIR may be sent to the solver for analysis directly from SAPFIR module. After analysis you will be able to preview and evaluate analysis results, such as: mosaic plots of displacements at nodes along all 6 directions, mosaic plots of stresses in plates (normal, shear stresses, moments, shear forces and soil pressure), mosaic plots of forces in bars (longitudinal, transverse forces, moments and soil pressure Ry, Rz) and mosaic plots of forces in 1-node elements in all 6 directions. Initial evaluation of the stress-strain state of the structure enables you to avoid errors in the meshed model and correct them in SAPFIR environment. The meshed model may be displayed both in the initial and deformed shape. The scale of deformations, the size of the nodes, the line thickness on the mosaic plots and the number of ranges within the scale are defined. It is possible to output results by the generated DCL and load cases.
Mosaic plot of displacement along the Z-axis in the meshed model
Mosaic plot of stress My in the meshed model
SAPFIR 2020: Analysis results (output data)
Generator
The new node is added: Block of Models. It enables the user to create the so-called Standard block. In such block, you can add objects from the SAPFIR graphic environment or any object created with nodes. Further, the Block of models may be duplicated by storeys, copy, make symmetry, etc. When initial block is modified, all other copies of the block are updated automatically. Such modifications contain both edit options (add a new object to the block, move object, delete) and modifications in properties of the objects included in the block.
Generator
Block of models
New nodes are added: node to generate the strip foundation under the walls, node to generate lintel above the opening, node to generate the grid lines.
New dialog box 'Update underlay' ( dxf and obj) to quickly update selected underlays and do not open the Generator dialog box.
There is a node for filter by criteria. The following data may be defined as criteria: length, height of object, thickness, material, relocation from level, type of object, layer, tag.
Node for import of *.ifc model. In the node you should define the path to the *.ifc file. Node for import of *.ifc file is updated dynamically. Any modification in the *.ifc file will be displayed in SAPFIR automatically when you activate the 'Update model' command. Modified, deleted or added objects are presented in different colours in SAPFIR environment. Modified objects are coloured green, added - blue, deleted - red. That's why it is possible to track changes in *.ifc file directly in SAPFIR.
Design of RC structures
In addition to the previous systems Slab, Diaphragm, Column, Beam and Dowels from the base slab, design of straight RC stairs is added to Design of RC structures module. Based on the information (about reinforcement) imported from VISOR-SAPR, the stairs may be unified.
The stairs are designed automatically. The program generates the reinforcement view that contains sectional elevation of a flight of stairs with main longitudinal reinforcement and additional reinforcement. The working drawing of reinforcement is generated for the staircase together with the schedule, list of components and list of steel consumption.
Design of stair
Large panel buildings
To calculate stiffness of the horizontal joint, input data may be defined manually (as alternative to obtaining the input data from the physical model). Thus, you can define appropriate values for the cubic strength of the mortar, thickness of the upper and lower mortar joint and the wall thickness. The values of the sigma-epsilon diagram will be calculated according to the specified data.
For the horizontal joint, new method is added. Floor slabs are supported with account of eccentricity using FE 10.
New method to visualize models as storeys with a shift. You can control relocation along the X, Y or Z-axes with special sliders.
It is possible to visually check correctness of the input data in the 'Stiffness analysis of joint' dialog box.
Unified graphical user interface VISOR-SAPR
Much enhanced options to define and edit loads based on interaction VISOR – SAPFIR – VISOR. Due to such interaction, there is new option to transfer part of the model or the whole model to create new or edit available loads with SAPFIR tools. New tool may be also used to collect wind loads, snow loads, soil pressure onto any design model generated in VISOR-SAPR module or imported from any allowed format. Now all surface loads applied to bars and plates save information about the contour vertices (projection line). Geometry and location of the contour may be modified at any moment when you work with design model. Presentation of load contour helps the user to evaluate the loads (defined for the model) as mosaic plots and significantly improves quality for documentation of the analysis input data.
To evaluate analysis results, mosaic and contour plots of full translational displacements (displacement vector) are added.
Unification angle for axes to generate the stresses and axes for orthotropic plates now is presented as prperty. That is, when you modify the mesh of plate FEs or the plate geometry, unification angle retains its location.
Visualization of borders for surface loads
The input data of the DCF/DCL tables for building codes (SNIP 2.01.07-85*, SP 20.13330.2016, DBN B.1.2-2:2006) is expanded with safety factors for buildings and structures.
Safety factors for buildings and structures
New version supports interactive analysis protocol. In case of any warnings, errors, residual errors during analysis procedure, the information from analysis protocol is automatically placed to the service window 'Errors and warnings'. So, there is an option to select nodes and elements without PolyFilter. For example, it is possible to quickly select nodes with considerable residual error or select destructed elements of the model, etc. by highlighting one or several rows in appropriate window.
Interactive analysis protocol
New option to copy and paste selected fragment from one model into another and do not specify reference nodes for merge procedure. When this command is applied, the models are merged in gnlobal coordinate system. This option is helpful when several engineers work with the same project. It is also possible to paste the certain fragment and automatically search for intersections.
Hinges in bars may be assigned based on selected nodes. Hinges may be also assigned at the end of structural elements. To check the design model and prepare documentation, there is 'mosaic plot for parameters of hinges' where you could see all assigned combinations in colour.
New options to generate hinges in bars
New option to save all defined dimension chains when you use the 'Geometric properties' dialog box. Dimension lines do not disappear when the model is redrawn. It is possible to cancel the last dimension line or cancel all defined dimensions. New option to present values of dimension lines with account of projection view.
For 2D problem that contains physically nonlinear soil FE (281-284), it is possible to compute stability factors for every FE. They are computed according to principal stresses and strength parameters defined in stiffness for geological element (GE).
New option to define names for histories of nonlinear load case. When intermediate results of nonlinear analysis are displayed, on the screen you will see the value for summary coefficient to load.
For standard types of sections for bars, new option to define the Poisson's ratio. In previous versions, the value equal to 0.25 was used in analysis on shear for these types of sections.
New option to save the edit parameters in the dialog box. Appropriate oprion is added in the 'Parameters to edit and visualize' dialog box, 'General' tab.
New option to work simultaneously in the 'Create dynamic load cases from the static ones' and 'Edit load cases' dialog boxes. In the first dialog box there is an option to organize the table rows by certain criteria.
No limitations on prerequisites to generate the input data for problems with 'Time history analysis'. In previous versions, it was necessary to folloe the strict rule to generate load cases in design model (the first load case – pre-history, the second one – load case with masses, the third one – dnamic loads and the fourth optional load case – damping forces). Now the user could indicate the numbers of these load cases.
Mosaic plots with wiehgts of masses are provided for dynamic problems. These mosaic plots may be used to evaluate analysis results and to prepare documentation.
Number of the group of coupled DOF contains information about number of nodes included into this group.
Mosaic plot with 'number of design sections' is available for bars.
Enhanced options in the 'Diagram along section' dialog box:
presentation of max values, values in every FE;
rotation in the 'Diagram along section' dialog box with the right mouse button.
Option to hide or show the grid lines during fragmentation of the model.
To check the input data in fire resistance analysis for RC structures, section edges subjected to heating will be coloured red. In the 3D view mode (3D-graphics) with account of assigned sections it s also possible to check fire conditions for plate elements.
New way to visualize the model - generation of 'Contour lines of plates and edges of solids'. This command may be used together with presentation of edges for slabs and solids and without sych presentation. It may be also used with previous commands for visyalization ('Without invisible lines', 'Shading', 'Stiffness in colour', etc.) and with mosaic/contour plots. You can also define the 'Smoothing angle for surface' (in degrees) to determine contour lines and modify thickness of contour lines for plates and edges of solids.
When the 'Contour lines of plates and edges of solids' command is active, the contour of elements that overlap (belong to the same plane) or intersect is also visualized.
Decimal symbol is automatically corrected (from comma to point) when you define input data in the table part of dialog boxes: 'DCL', 'DCF', 'Regular fragments and grids', '3D frames', 'Nonlinear stress-strain diagrams', 'Colour grade visualization', 'Summarize loads', 'NL Engineering'; SOIL system ('Grids', 'Boreholes', 'Table of boreholes', 'Soil properties'), etc. In the above-mentioned dialog boxes, you could work with formula in selected cell. To define the formula for certain cell, make the cell active and input the equal sign. When you define the formula, press ENTER. The result of calculation will be displayed in the cell.
In the 'Transform mesh of plate FE' dialog box (on the 'Edit transformation' tab), you can use as vertices not only nodes that belong to FEs or 'dangling' nodes but the grid nodes as well.
New option to delete the load from selected elements and nodes in all load cases of design model.
Mosaic plots of nonlinear stiffness for FE 255 - 2-node FE of elastic springs with account of ultimate forces (Rx, Ry, Rz, Ruõ, Ruy, Ruz).
Mosaic plot for the area of punching shear reinforcement per running metre of perimeter. This plot clearly illustrates the intensity of reinforcement.
For new modules 'Bar analogues' and 'Progressive collapse', new user-friendly graphic interface to define the input data, evaluate analysis results and prepare documentation.
Information about nodes and elements of design model is updated, there are new information tabs that describe the input/output data for new types of analyses.
In the 'Pack model' dialog box, new parameter 'ignore nodes of bar analogues'. It helps the user to avoid 'throwing together' the nodes of target elements in bar analogues and nodes of other elements in the model.
New version of LIRA-FEM program presents high-precision (with nodes on sides) linear finite elements (plates and solids). With these elements the program significantly improves the solution accuracy even with coarse mesh.
The sixth degree of freedom (DOF) for the shell is realized – rotation about the axis perpendicular to the plane of the plate. With new DOF the program improves the quality of the FE model when solving certain problems (to simulate mass eccentricity, to avoid geometrically unstable models, etc.) without mandatory use of special simulation techniques. Appropriate setting is added to analysis parameters.
To solve dynamic problems with the spectrum method, an algorithm of mass condensation is implemented; it can significantly reduce the time to search for mode shapes. In this approach when mode shapes are searched for, only masses of the main structure are considered, while masses from the flexible part (for this problem the user is not interested in natural vibrations of this part) are concentrated at the common nodes. Eccentricities for account of torsion may be assigned to the nodes where mass condensation is performed.
Mass condensation for dynamic analysis
Advanced settings to manage the analysis procedure
An alternative method of summing up components during earthquake analysis is implemented. This algorithm enables you to consider the proximity of frequencies and recommendations of many regulatory documents in analysis & design of earthquake-resistant construction, for example, formula (5.9) mentioned in paragraph 5.11 of SP 14.13330.2018.
New dynamics module is introduced according to the spectra NTP RK 08-01.1-2017 'Design of earthquake-resistant buildings and structures', referred to by NP to the SP RK EN 1998-1: 2004/2012 (R2).
New option to carry out 'Time History Analysis' after using the ASSEMBLAGE system or 'Step-type nonlinearity'. That is, it is possible to take into account the stress-strain states of structures before dynamic load due to the generation the history of loading / erection.
Verification test to evaluate the solution accuracy when high-precision FEs are used
Verification test to evaluate the solution accuracy when standard FEs are used
New variant of the iterative behaviour of the FE of joint is introduced. With this variant it is possible to avoid the disadvantages of the step-type analysis method. The iterative method has the following advantages: the element is turned off in uplifting, the element is turned on when direction of load is changed, the force in iterative element will not be greater than allowed one. See demonstration "Analysis of large panel buildings in LIRA-SAPR' (slide 21)
For iterative and step-type FEs of the platform joint, shear stiffness may be corrected depending on the vertical deformation.
For problems with 'Time history analysis', load cases with dynamic loads, masses and damping forces may have arbitrary numbers.
It is possible to define the local failure to elements in problems with 'Time history analysis' (option is available with the new system 'Progressive collapse').
Comparison of analysis results for high-precision and standard FE
Pathological test from verification report of LIRA-FEM (volume II)
Enhanced options for solving problems by the iterative method. In the analysis you can use:
'Method 1' – classic method of compensating loads;
'Method 2' – modified method of compensating loads, it is recommended to use this method for problems with structural nonlinearity;
'Auto select' – convergence rate is evaluated during analysis and appropriate method for solution is selected.
New types of FE: 245, 246 and 247 (physically nonlinear analogues for FE of thick shell).
SOIL System
Ribbon user interface is introduced. However, if necessary, the user could work with the classic interface with drop-down menus and toolbars.
Subgrade moduli are calculated according to the building code SP RK EN 1997-1: 2004/2011 by the method of linear elastic half-space as the layer-by-layer sum. Subgrade moduli may be calculated by three methods (‘Method 1’ - Pasternak, ‘Method 2’ - Winkler, ‘Method 3’ - modified Pasternak model where modulus of elasticity is modified along the depth). If required, an iterative process may be organized automatically; it will clarify the active pressure on the soil under the base of designed foundation slab.
Visual components (to modify the input data tables) are updated in the main dialog boxes, such as properties of GE, bore holes / table of bore holes, grid for generation.
For the model of the equivalent foundation, Íñ (the depth of compressible stratum) is measured from the base of the equivalent foundation. The diagram of soil pressure removed from the foundation pit is generated from the grillage base when the non-zero value K1 and/or K2 is set.
New interface in SOIL system
Example. Analysis of settlement in equivalent foundation with the SOIL system
Masonry & masonry reinforcing structures
The new version presents an alternative algorithm for analysis of masonry reinforcing structures in strict compliance with SP 15.13330.2012 (amendment No.3). Appropriate setting is placed in set of properties for design options. New user interface has been developed to describe the design parameters of masonry and mesh reinforcement.
With new analysis algorithm it is possible to carry out analysis by ultimate limit state (ULS) and by serviceability limit state (SLS) for piers with rectangular section only. Analysis of piers with arbitrary cross-section may be carried out with a previously implemented algorithm that is based on a nonlinear deformation model of masonry.
To generate rectangular piers, a new method is introduced to generate groups within the design level. The group is a set of zones (walls/segments) that form the shape of design section for a pier. To define the shape for the pier, use the 'General settings/Brickwork' dialog box.
According to Recommendations on design of masonry structures strengthened with basalt mesh produced by JSC 'STEKLONIT' developed by TSNIISK named after V.A.Kucherenko, analysis with account of composite mesh is introduced in LIRA-SAPR 2020.
How to select algorithm for analysis of masonry structures
Analysis of piers with arbitrary cross-section is enhanced. The area of compressed zone in the section is determined according to the deformation model, so the nonlinear behaviour of the brickwork is considered. In this case, more accurate analysis of the geometry of pier is carried out; it enables you to correctly compute the flexibility of the pier, the distance from the gravity centre to the section edge, as well as other geometric properties.
New option to generate a report file in which all the intermediate analysis results are indicated, the geometric properties of piers for each combination of forces, as well as values of ultimate strain and stress for a nonlinear deformation model for each pier.
Analysis of pier is also enhanced taking account of strengthening with steel casing, RC casing and reinforced plaster. Analysis is carried out in accordance with the Manual on the design of masonry and masonry reinforcing structures to SNIP II-22-81 (chapter 5).
To check materials defined to plate elements of the model and prepare documentation, use the corresponding mosaic plot on the 'Geometric & Properties' panel.
In bars and plate elements it is possible to determine required area of transverse reinforcement from analysis on fire resistance.
For bars it is possible to analyse longitudinal reinforcement for all types of cross-sections.
Standard types of sections for which you could carry out analysis of reinforcement with account of fire resistance
For 'momentless' diaphragms, analysis of reinforcement in the middle of the element is provided. It is very practical for 3D volumetric construction (very thin wall with central reinforcement).
How to define the distance to gravity centre of the longitudinal reinforcement in the middle
To evaluate the pilot reinforcement, it is possible to display the output data (reserve factors) for 5 different check procedures.
Output data from analysis of pilot reinforcement (PR) for plate elements
All checks for the pilot reinforcement are greatly accelerated due to the option to define the search range.
For Eurocode and similar codes, it is possible to carry out punching shear analysis of reinforcement with account of longitudinal main reinforcement.
How to define the input data for punching shear analysis of transverse reinforcement with account of longitudinal reinforcement
All above-mentioned options are provided for the LARM-SAPR module as well (local reinforcement of separate elements in design model of the structure).
When the output data from analysis of transverse reinforcement is displayed as coloured mosaic plots, the colour palette settings are presented in details. It greatly simplifies the evaluation and speeds up the transferring of the output data to design:
for plates
for bars
for punching shear
Steel structures
Analysis of an I-beam with variable cross-section is introduced. The algorithm for selecting cross-sections is based on the condition of obtaining min possible profile in terms of material consumption. All cross-sections within the structural element retain linear relationship between dimensions of the sections at the beginning and end of the bar. Output data for the selection of sections indicating the utilization ratio for each check is presented in graphical and tabular forms.
The set of cross-sections available to check and select thin-walled shapes according to SP 260.1325800.2016 is extended.
In the local mode, characteristic combination of forces is also displayed for evaluation (this combination has made the max contribution for each of the checks).
This system enables the user to design combined structural elements (RC pylon, precast RC wall panel, RC wall-beam, RC pier, RC lintel) without modifications to the existing analysis procedures in LIRA-SAPR. All of the above-mentioned types of structures are often represented in the design model with a set of plate FEs. This is due to the fact that almost all software that are used to generate an architectural/physical model work with objects such as wall/wall panel/plate.
Selected approximation method is quite adequate to consider behaviour of such an element within the framework, but it is not always possible to consider all peculiar features of the strength analysis. For example, the dense mesh for triangulation is required to evaluate stresses because the stresses computed in the gravity centre of FE are used in analysis. One of the most common errors is the simulation of bending and eccentrically-compressed/tensioned elements with one FE along the section height.
How to create bar analogues for the steel beam
To design combined structural elements, the bar analogues (bar elements similar to them, with identical sections and materials) are created for such elements. Bar analogues (BA) do not take part in the analysis carried out by the solver — the forces in their sections are computed according to the forces in the initial FEs. The forces may be computed in different elements: bars, plates, solids, special elements, and all possible combinations of such elements. Then, analysis of reinforcement and analysis of steel sections for bar analogues is carried out as for the main elements of the model.
The section with arbitrary shape and components from the Cross-section Design Toolkit module can be assigned to bars in BAs. Then, it is possible to return the acting forces from the analysis results to the Cross-section Design Toolkit module in order to carry out verification analysis of the bearing capacity of such section by nonlinear deformation model.
How to create bar analogue for one of the pylons in the fragment of FE model of the building
New module PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE
New specialized system that complies with current recommendations for simulation of behaviour of building structures in case of emergency actions that cause local destruction of certain load-bearing elements.
Analysis may be carried out by:
quasi-static method in linear and nonlinear settings. The ASSEMBLAGE system is used. Reactions from deleted element are applied to the model with the opposite sign and with account of dynamic factors.
dynamic method of direct integration for equations of motion in time in linear and nonlinear settings. Analysis may be carried out with account of the loading/erection history. The final stage of erection is the automatic generation and application of the impulse load at certain period of time. This method also enables you to consider the damping effects.
One of results of the analysis is the forces computed in all elements of the model. They may be used to carry out structural analyses. For linear design models, in addition to the option to check the bearing capacity of sections, it is also possible to carry out analysis of reinforcement and analysis of steel sections.
Thus, after numerical simulation, the user will obtain a qualitative evaluation of the structural stability to progressive collapse. The user will be able to compare various collapse scenarios in order to identify the weak points.
Presentation of the output data from analysis on progressive collapse in dynamic setting
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