Slab contours, axes, *. ifc, Autodesk Revit, load collection, special load, intersections, steel table, pile array, levels, PRB, lintels, joint, reinforcement colour palette, rope, SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, SP RK EN 1993-1-1:2005/2011, DCF table, characteristic combination, modal analysis, three-component accelerogram, metal section, moduli of subgrade reaction (subgrade moduli), analysis on seismogram, analysis termination, trapezoidal load, loading by formula, structural elements, calculation of deflection
For floor plans, corrected bugs in case:
- two slab contours (foundation slabs) are generated if one of their edges coincides;
- grid lines are created by layer if the grid line label and grid line itself are on different layers.
- Enhanced export of beams to IFC file.
- Fixed bug in the output for results of reinforcement for the LIRA-SAPR and Autodesk Revit integration.
- For the 'Special load' tool, the number of created loads is displayed in the 'Edit load cases' dialog box.
- In the project properties there is new parameter 'Intersection diagnostic error' that is used when the floor slabs are checked for intersections
- It is possible to switch the table's orientation from rows to columns in the steel table.
- Work with large arrays of piles is accelerated (options to copy, select, move objects). Files with large pile arrays are now opened more quickly.
- Improved autodetection of analytical floor levels for cases with many multi-level slabs within one floor.
- Enhanced generation of PRB column-wall for situations where the model contains offsets from column to wall.
- Fixed script error when you open the file (and its folder) from the SAPFIR start page. Improved loading of the start page in cases of poor internet connections.
- Restored option 'Apply to adjacent walls' in properties of the opening.
- Enhanced 'Mirror' command for openings in the slab and wall.
- Corrected error when the Slab with interpretation 'Load' was not included into the meshed model.
- Fixed bug that in certain situations caused the window infill to disappear.
- For a lintel (simulated with a bar) that is defined in the properties of door and window openings, the bar is divided along FE of horizontal joint (restored option) when the model is transferred from SAPFIR module to VISOR-SAPR module.
- Enhanced auto arrangement of joints with the 'Apply' command in the Joint tool.
- Reinforcement colour palette is updated (restored option) when parameters of colour palette (colour, diameter, step) are modified.
- Improved view of wall reinforcement for cases where openings in the wall are indicated from the storey top with a negative relocation.
- Enhanced option to bake nodes.
- Restored node 'Rope'.
- Fixed bug related when you undo a node if the properties of another node were edited just before it.
Compatibility issues are identified for some Radeon graphics card models.
Unified graphic environment, design modules, etc.
- In the analysis of reinforcement according to SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, the influence of the slenderness ratio on the values of design moments is clarified when the first order effects (geometric imperfections) are considered.
- Accelerated procedures for the selection of steel sections of the 'rectangular tube' type by SP RK EN 1993-1-1:2005/2011.
- For plate elements, the number of characteristic combination is corrected in the data about reserve factor for reinforcement.
- In the DCF table for the punching shear contours, the shift of force values in the columns of the table is corrected.
- Corrected error in generation of mosaic plot for analysis results of reinforcement in bars.
- In the mode of analysis results visualization, the results are presented graphically for dynamic loads for which the dynamic type is defined as 'Modal analysis' (restored option).
- The scale factors to a three-component accelerogram (dynamics module 29) are corrected if they were set to 0.
- For weakly compressible soils, the calculation for the depth of compressible stratum Hs is clarified.
- In the 'Metal section' dialog box, presentation of the specified corrosion data is restored.
- The stiffness properties of an I-beam section defined parametrically (that is, no steel table) are clarified in case of rotation for a section.
- In the 'Information about element' dialog box for FE 53, the 'subgrade moduli' tab is restored.
- The seismogram calculation in nonlinear time history analysis is refined.
- Modified calculation for the rigid joint of metal beams and beam-to-column connections.
- When specifying physically nonlinear stiffness for standard section types, it is possible to define parameters to arrange the horizontal reinforcement (restored option).
- Clarified analysis of transverse reinforcement in RC elements according to TKP EN 1992-1-1-2009.
- Limitations to stability analysis for steel cross-sections of beams, columns and trusses are corrected according to SP RK EN 1993-1-1:2005/2011.
- Clarified conditions for termination of analysis according to a certain criterion for geometrically nonlinear problems.
- Fixed bug in the location of trapezoidal load for the bars with variable cross-section.
- The list of FE types and conditions for assigning C1/C2 and Pz to bars are clarified.
- For SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, the reinforcement class C is selected by default when RC materials are defined (value of the coefficient k=1.15).
- Fixed bug in analysis of load cases by formula when no component is calculated for a dynamic load available in the formula.
- In the 'Stiffnesses and materials' dialog box, it is possible to define the stiffness for FE 341-344 (restored).
- A possible program crash during analysis of reinforcement in problems with structural elements is eliminated.
- In the calculation of deflections for steel elements carried out by DCF for load histories, the account of forces for group B2 is corrected.
- In the 'Report Book', possible problems when the DCF table is generated in
*.csvformat are corrected.
- Fixed bug in generating mosaic plot for the number of elements adjacent to the nodes.
Enhanced plugins for Autodesk Revit, Tekla Structures and converters based on *.saf, *.dwg, *.ifc formats. Auto collection of loads. Nonlinear heat conductivity. New finite elements available in the FE library: one-node damper with six degrees of freedom (FE 66) and two-node damper (FE 65). Aluminium structures. ReSpectrum. Subproblems vs Blocks of load cases. Deformation of foundation bed from soil consolidation and creep is calculated, end-bearing piles, calculation of C1/C2 for bars. Additional Reinforcement.
INTEROPERABILITY - components of ВIM technology
- Enhanced options for two-way integration with Autodesk Revit. BIM integration with Autodesk Revit 2023. Export of both physical and analytical model. Import of only analytical model from Revit 2023.
- A special tool to check the reinforcement in plate elements; it enables you to automatically present in certain colour the under-reinforced areas in plate elements. This tool interacts both with mesh reinforcement 'Distributed' and with the 'Reinforcement by Path' object.
- Two-way converter Tekla Structures 2022 - LIRA-SAPR - Tekla Structures 2022. The Tekla Structures - LIRA-SAPR - Tekla Structures converter provides full functionality for the analysis and design of metal and reinforced concrete structures.
- When the IFC file is imported, it is possible to configure the IFC parameters, that is, to match parameters of the IFC object with parameters of the SAPFIR object. Such match option for parameters may can be performed for each type of IFC object.
- A new tool for import of DWG files is provided. This makes it possible to use this format:
- as 2D 'underlay' that may be the basis for generating a model in SAPFIR module;
- as a basis for filling the library of typical joints with subsequent generation of drawings;
- for automatic generation of a model based on DWG floor plans.
- For DXF/DWG floor plans, the following options are added:
- to import special elements FE 55
- to import vertical triangulation lines for walls
- Enhanced tool to export types of reinforcement (TR) available in the project for columns to the DXF file.
- Import of new objects SAF:
- Loads on plates - concentrated load, concentrated moment, linear uniformly distributed load, linear moment, linear trapezoidal load, plane load;
- Loads on columns - concentrated load, concentrated moment, linear uniformly distributed load, linear moment, linear trapezoidal load;
- Loads on walls - concentrated load, concentrated moment, linear uniformly distributed load, linear moment, linear trapezoidal load, plane load;
- Loads on beams - concentrated load, concentrated moment, linear uniformly distributed load, linear moment, linear trapezoidal load;
- Hinges in beams and columns.
- Enhanced tool that enables you to automatically create triangulation zones for slabs:
- In addition to triangulation zones (for slabs) located above the walls, it is now possible to create triangulation zones (for slabs) below the walls with indent from the wall in 4 directions and individual triangulation step;
- Enhanced algorithm for triangulation of contours; it provides better triangulation of slabs-to-wall connections.
- It is now possible to automatically refine triangulation mesh for plates near the openings. In the properties of the opening you could define the step of triangulation points around the opening, the number of rows of points with fixed step and the total number of rows of triangulation points. After the rows with fixed triangulation step, the program creates several rows with intermediate step to avoid the degenerate triangles when the fine mesh (near the opening) becomes the sparse mesh (in the span).
- The 'Enhance triangulation at intersections' option is presented in the properties of design model to avoid narrow triangular FEs if a coarse triangulation mesh is defined for the model. When this option is selected, at places where narrow triangular FEs should appear, the triangulation mesh is refined and better quality FEs are generated.
- Enhanced options for the 'Create grid on wall' node to generate horizontal and vertical triangulation lines in the wall with a specified triangulation step. New parameters are added for the node:
- 'List of levels' - to define the intervals of horizontal triangulation lines from the wall bottom and between each other;
- 'Intervals by openings' – to adapt the wall triangulation lines to vertical triangulation lines from openings, if such lines are defined in the properties of the opening.
- Extended options for the 'Sum up loads' dialog box. Now it works not only with the analytical model, but with the meshed model as well.
- It is possible to transfer the load from a column base to the soil model. In the column properties you could assign the distributed load on soil Pz, subgrade moduli C1 and C2, horizontal stiffness for the slab supported with soil Cx and Cy, support and boundary conditions to the analytical presentation of the column base.
- The rendering of visual load models is optimized. In version 2022, a model with a large number of loads rotates, pans and zooms 1.5 times faster than in version 2021. To activate this option, in the 'SAPFIR preferences' dialog box, on the 'Visualization' tab, use the 'Simplified presentation of loads' check box.
- New mode when the wind load is applied manually rather than automatically generated. For the pulsation load, the user-defined static loads may be applied.
- Visualization of wind load in the architectural model with the option to 'freeze' the wind. This option allows you to update/cancel automatic wind generation when geometry of the structure is modified.
- When the wind pressure (active/passive) is automatically applied in space, it is possible to collect wind on the side walls (zones A, B, C) and define the aerodynamic coefficient for each zone.
- Wind load may be collected for flat, gable and shed roofs according to SP RK EN 1991-1-4:2005/2017.
- The collection of wind loads on bars is optimized. The slope angles for bars and rotation angles for cross-section are now taken into account. Option to modify the coefficient to load for each element.
- Tools to create special parametric load. This load is transferred to VISOR-SAPR module as load distributed across the plate elements or as load distributed along the bar length rather than the surface load. The load intensity may be defined with the parameters 'Surface load, tf/m2' for plate elements or 'Load per r.m., tf/m' for bars. The load may be applied along the normal to the element. In this case, a number of other parameters become available to simulate the liquid and gas pressure on the tank walls.
- Considerably simplified procedure for collecting loads from the surface or slab and redistributing them to a beam system of arbitrary shape. Floor slabs or surfaces with a special new interpretation 'Proxy objects for loads' and loads with the option 'Loads through proxy objects' are used to distribute the loads. When design model is generated, the option 'Distribute loads on beams through proxy objects' becomes active and the program automatically performs all further steps: intersections, triangulation, assignment of supports and analysis. Based on the analysis results, the non-uniformly distributed linear loads on the beams are generated in SAPFIR module. For each element it is possible to correct the coefficient to load.
- For the surface load, new option to cut the contour by a line, a plane (hatching), or by the contour of other objects.
- For all objects that have interpretation 'Load', new parameter 'Additional load case' to add the load to a certain assemblage stage.
- New 'Ventiduct' tool to automatically cut the openings in walls and slabs that it passes through. The openings may be generated exactly according to the shape of the ventilation duct or with a specified indent. Since every opening is associative, it is automatically updated whenever a ventiduct’s location or size is modified.
- The option to create an inclined column. In the properties of the object, define the slope angle and direction of inclination for the column. For oblique column, almost complete set of properties for the vertical column is available: changing stiffness parameters, generating PRB, assigning support and boundary conditions, generating triangulation points, etc.
- The automatic generation of bar analogues in SAPFIR module. To generate a bar analogue (BA), simple rectangular cross-sections are recognised:
- linear sections of wall;
- slab rectangular in plan;
- lintel above and below the opening;
- pylons or beams, described in meshed model with plate-type FEs.
In the properties of BA you could specify the number of BA sections. Division of BA may also be specified with the approximation step.
To generate BA from walls or slabs, new option is added to the properties of the corresponding objects.
In addition to the option to replace the area above the opening with a bar, in the properties of door and window openings there is new option to save the modelling of the area above the opening with plate elements and to generate a lintel as BA. In the same way, it is possible to generate a BA for the zone below the window.
For rectangular beams it is possible to generate a BA in the shape of a T-section. The program automatically recognises the height of the T-section while the flange width of the T-section may be defined in the properties of BA.
- Enhanced 'Check model' procedure:
- the warnings that are not critical are removed;
- enhanced algorithm of the search for intersecting slab contours in case the slabs have a compound contour in plan;
- in addition to the search for duplicated objects, the new search for objects in which analytical models partially intersect each other, it will help avoid errors in meshed model;
- when model is checked for coinciding or intersecting objects, it is possible to consider the objects from different floors.
- New tools to generate a retaining wall and a slab of variable thickness. The section contour of the retaining wall is defined in the 'Cross-section parameters' dialog box. For a slab of variable thickness, the max and min slab thicknesses are defined. The analytical model of the retaining wall and the slab of variable thickness is presented as several plates of different thicknesses. The number of plates is specified in the 'number of divisions in analytics' parameter in the slab/wall properties. The plates may be coaxial or shifted by offsets relative each other.
- Option to edit the wall contour in the plane of wall.
- For columns and beams, new option to define a variable cross-section for all standard SAPFIR cross-sections.
Note that in LIRA-SAPR only rectangular bar and I-shape may have a variable section, i.e. when rectangular bar and I-shape are imported, they will retain their parameters. In other case, after import procedure the bar is split into parts with increasing stiffness.
- Tools for splitting a wall with a column. In the column properties, there is a new 'PRB column-wall' parameter that allows you to create perfectly rigid body (PRB) between the wall ends and the column. The PRB is associative, i.e. when one of the walls or columns is moved, the relationship between the objects is remained.
- Optional presentation of the FE mesh on the physical model. The option is available after performing triangulation and saving the
*.s2lfile to transfer it to VISOR-SAPR module.
- The generated PRB (defined as a property and generated by the search for intersections) may be displayed on the analytical model. PRB is displayed as orange lines that connect the nodes included into PRB.
- Several new tools to evaluate the quality of the generated triangulation mesh: mosaic plots for quality of plates, area of plates, min angles of plates, min lengths of plate ribs, lengths of bars and rotation angles of bars.
- Added 'Align' command to align walls vertically. There are two modes for alignment: parallelism - after alignment they will be parallel to the selected wall, but not coaxial; vertical coaxial - after alignment they will be parallel and vertically coaxial to the selected wall.
- New option to select similar objects by horizontal stalk. They are selected with the 'Select horizontally' options ('Select along axis/direction' commands). The following objects may be selected:
- Foundation slabs;
- Concentrated load;
- Linear load.
- Tolerances for analytical models of the objects are added to the project properties:
- 'min threshold of door' height for analytical models of wall.
- The 'Stair' tool is enhanced:
- more support options for stairs. It is now possible to assign that a flight of stairs is supported with the landing and floor slabs as a coupled DOF along Z, X and Y or to select a user-defined support;
- auto unification of local axes for stairs when the model is transferred to VISOR-SAPR module.
- In the 'Snap of base point' dialog box it is possible to select the location for the analytical presentation of the beam and column within the section.
- Enhanced 'Shaft' tool to work with storey levels and additional levels within a storey. Openings along the shaft contour are generated automatically in all slabs that the shaft passes through.
- New functionality for the 'Other' object:
- to select the 'Ventiduct' option in the properties of the 'Other' object to automatically generate openings in all walls and slabs that the 'Other' object passes through;
- the 'Cut by storeys' command is also available for the 'Other' object.
- For the capital and column base, new option to create stages only in one direction.
- The schedule of the metal shapes may be organized by user-defined types of elements: column, beam, framework, brace member, purlin, rope, etc.
- For the existing 'Cut' command there is an 'Extend' option that allows you to extend all SAPFIR linear objects up to a specified line. The command is available in 3D views, on floor plans, facades, cross-sections, sectional elevations and drawings.
- It is now possible to save the SAPFIR file together with all the files associated with it (SLD - soil model, DXF, DWG, IFC, SAF, XLS and ASP - reinforcement results) to a separate project folder. A project archive may be created in the same way.
- On the 'Project structure' tab, new option to control visibility of the object.
- The section name is displayed, elements may be organized automatically - elements with the same section type and size will be located next to one another in the list.
- Some changes and improvements to the 'View' tab, namely:
- when created, reinforcement types will go to a new chapter RC;
- option to organize alphabetically;
- option to move the reinforcement types within the tree;
- option to create custom chapters; move reinforcement types across chapters (just drag them);
- option to change the name for the chapter;
- option to display reinforcement types by type of RC elements ;
- option to save the camera location;
- to select group of items and then move or delete views.
- More options available on the start page:
- a shortcut menu for the recently opened files;
- 'Import' command to import files and not to create an empty
- Any image imported from popular bitmap formats (PNG, JPEG, BMP) may be placed on a sheet of drawing. When the image is imported, it is possible to change its density, size and aspect ratio.
- For types of reinforcement in slab, new option to display (in the working view) notation for patterns of additional reinforcement in slab as they will be presented in the drawing.
- Auto orientation of labels for main reinforcement along direction of the unified axes defined in the properties of the reinforced slab.
- Option to create a 2D node from a reinforcement view.
- For types of reinforcement in diaphragm, it is possible to indicate the reinforcement zones on the drawing.
- For reinforcement cages in punching shear, it is possible to modify class of reinforcement in the 'Schedule of reinforcement' dialog box.
- The 'Unify slabs' dialog box: visual information (as the same colours for rows) for slabs of similar area.
- DSTU 3760:2019 is supported for reinforcing bars, reinforcing items, stirrups and studs.
- For the reinforcement model Column, new option to modify location of stirrups 'manually'.
- The work with models with a large number of NODEs is accelerated.
- New nodes are added:
- 'Cleanup beams' to trim or extend beams to walls, columns, lines or other beams. In addition, it is possible to limit the zone in which the cleanup or extension should be made.
- 'Delete coincident line fragments' - to remove duplicate line segments so that errors do not occur when you generate a model based on these lines.
- 'Delete coincident points' - to remove duplicate points.
- 'Ventiduct' - to generate (along the line) the object type 'ventilation duct' that will cut openings in walls and slabs.
- 'Shaft by contour' - to automatically create openings in the floor slabs that it crosses.
- 'Load along vector direction' - to generate uniform and nonuniform linear loads along a specified vector. For example, to apply a wind load to bars.
- 'Lines from column' - to obtain the vertical axis for column and the contour line for column section.
- 'Convert objects' - to convert some object types to others.
- 'Import XLS file' - to import an updatable Excel file with numerical values. At node input it is possible to define where the values should be taken (from which sheet, from which columns, rows, cells or cell ranges). You will obtain the node output with the data from cells or several outputs (with the corresponding names of column) that may be linked to other nodes.
- 'List of elements specified with indexes' – to divide a list of items from the input into different outputs according to defined indexes.
- 'String to array of real numbers' - to convert a specified text string to an array of real numbers.
- 'String to array of integers' - to convert a specified text string to an array of integers.
- 'Arrays (with sets of points) specified with indexes' - to generate several arrays of points from the 1st set of points according to defined indexes.
- Enhanced nodes:
- 'Columns by points' – option to create columns by vertical line (e.g. from 3D dxf).
- 'Advanced generation of storeys by specified levels' - the number of possible inputs for floors is increased from 32 to 1024.
- 'Block of models' - to modify properties of internal objects through connection to the input parameter Par of the 'InPar' node.
- 'Boolean unification of lines', 'Boolean subtraction from lines of input 1 lines of input 2' and 'Boolean intersection of lines' - additional outputs Ln with contours of openings.
- 'Import IFC' and 'Import SAF' - outputs to access imported objects in order to convert them to other object types or modify the properties of imported objects.
Analysis according to SP RK EN (Kazakhstan)
Added option to set increasing factors Fvk that are unique for each dynamic load case (sect.7.6.5, 7.6.6 SP RK 2.03-30-2017 and sect.6.4.1, 6.4.2 NTP RK 08-01.2-2021).
- Added option to compute the sensitivity coefficient θ for the skews; this coefficient enables you to evaluate whether it is necessary to consider the second-order effects according to formula 4.28 (2) sect.188.8.131.52 SP RK EN 1998-1:2004/2012 (same as formula 7.2 п. 184.108.40.206 NTP RK 08-01.2-2021).
Within the same model it is now possible to carry out an earthquake analysis by considering two options for increasing coefficients to C1 (*10*1.5 and *10/1.5), i.e., two enveloping options for increasing the foundation stiffness. But in this case, subgrade moduli across the foundation area for dynamics should be assumed as constant rather than variable. These design assumptions are mentioned in sect.D.3.1-D.3.3 of Annex D to NTP RK 08-01.2-2021.
New input tables for load cases and DCL (Design Combinations of Loads) have been implemented. It is more easier now to edit the tebles and transfer them between design models together with the settings.
New tool to automatically generate initial imperfections to simulate the first order effects (deviations during erection and local geometric imperfections) for the list of load cases or DCL and to add the generated load cases to initial load combinations.
To correctly select the direction and reduce the number of possible combinations for additional loads from the initial imperfections, in the dialog box for generating imperfections, directional cosines computed by displacements are presented. It helps the user to create additional loads that will make worse the effects caused by the main loads on design model and do not create unnecessary combinations.
Displacements and forces in elements of the model are presented graphically with account of safety factors and all combination coefficients (in previous versions, the final output data was available only in standard tables).
For the DCL calculation according to SP PK EN 1990:2002+A1:2005/2011, new option to consider safety factors applied to analysis results (displacements, forces). Safety factors may be considered separately for the following design situations: main combinations; characteristic, frequent and quasi-permanent combinations; emergency and earthquake combinations.
For SP PK EN 1990:2002+A1:2005/2011, new option to find out characteristic load combinations within each finite element. As there may be several hundreds of design combinations of loads in the model, it complicates the evaluation and requires more time for analysis. In this situation it is possible to calculate 'Characteristic DCL' abbreviated as DCL(c). In this mode all calculated DCL are automatically assigned as mutually exclusive with regard to the type of combination; the most dangerous combinations (of already calculated DCL) are selected according to criteria for DCL selection. Since there are no many criteria for each type of FE, the number of obtained characteristic DCL is reduced; it helps to significantly reduce the time for analysis.
For SP PK EN 1990:2002+A1:2005/2011, it is possible to select and check the pilot reinforcement according to characteristic DCL.
If a finite element is part of a structural element, its number of characteristic DCL may be extended to the total set of combinations of all FEs available in that structural element. This feature is necessary to consider the shape of the force diagrams along the length of the structural element for a more correct analysis & design.
For the SP RK EN 1990:2002+A1:2005/2011, new option to use the METEOR system (Model Variation) that is mentioned to integrate analysis results of several design models with the same topology into a single integrated result. The DCL(c) results are unified: for all sections the program selects (from all problems) such DCL(c) that cause extreme value of each criterion. In this case, all DCL(c) for the corresponding criteria automatically become mutually exclusive.
New option to compute the settlement for specific soils (expansive, collapsive and saline) according to SP RK 5.01-102-2013.
Option to compute additional component of the settlement for any time interval t due to consolidation of soil. Calculation is made by formulas 7.5-7.7, sect.220.127.116.11 NTP RK 07-01.4-2012.
Option to compute additional component of the settlement from creep. Calculation is made by formula 7.16, sect.18.104.22.168 NTP RK 07-01.4-2012.
Option to automatically fill in the table of mass for dynamic loads. The table is filled in based on the combination coefficients used in the DCL combinations where dynamic loads are included.
Option to generate deflection diagrams in the plane of plate; this option may be used, for example, to classify the floor slabs by stiffness.
Clarified analysis of reinforcement according to SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, including first order effects (geometric imperfections) and second order effects.
For SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, new option to consider the second order effects in analysis of reinforcement for bars. The following methods are available: by nominal stiffness, by nominal curvature and a variant where the max reinforcement is selected from analysis by all methods.
Modified analysis of reinforcement in shear force according to SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011. Parameters for the slope angle of a possible crack are specified separately for each design situation (main combination, emergency or earthquake). Analysis of reinforcement as well as verification of bearing capacity for concrete compressive diagonal element may be carried out for three options:
with user-defined slope angle θ (by default, 45 degrees);
the slope angle θ is determined by calculation (from the condition Ved=Vrd,max);
all possible slope angles θ within the certain range are checked.
In analysis according to SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, extended set of coefficients and parameters for analysis of reinforcement.
For SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, analysis of pilot reinforcement for shear forces and serviceability limit state (crack of width propagation).
Information about the type and name of combinations is added to the table of combinations for punching shear analysis.
Analysis of pilot reinforcement is available for all types of standard cross-sections of bars.
Alternative algorithm in analysis of reinforcement for plate elements based on Wood theory.
For SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, analysis of additional reinforcement is realized.
Analysis of reinforcement according to the universal concrete diagram (parabolic-rectangular diagram of compressed concrete) is implemented.
For SP RK EN 1993-1-1:2005/2011, information about characteristic forces used in analysis of the steel cross-section in local mode of the program. This feature greatly simplifies evaluation of analysis results. It also enables the user to evaluate the contribution of each load or combination of loads.
In the analysis according to SP RK EN 1993-1-1:2005/2011 and SP RK EN 1998-1:2004/2012, option to consider the plastic behaviour of the structure in earthquake load: for moment resisting frames, frames with concentric diagonal and V-shaped bracings, inverted pendulum structures and moment resisting frames combined with concentric bracings.
In SAPFIR environment, wind load is collected automatically for rhe buildings rectangular in plan (active/passive pressure zones, end walls and roof). In the properties of wind load, there is new option to manage the profile, to adjust the number of ranges along the building height where constant pressure is applied. In addition, an option to 'freeze' the generated loads and edit them manually.
Auto generation of bar analogues (BA) for walls/pylons/piers and lintels above and below openings. It is now also possible to create BAs for stiffeners as part of floor slabs.
For SP RK EN 1990:2002+A1:2005/2011, new settings for auto generation of load combinations:
- "G+W" - to create combinations with all dead and one live load 'Wind'.
- "G+Sn" - to create combinations with all dead and one live load 'Snow'.
It is important to use these combinations in the analysis to put less load on the frame. This is especially necessary for the checking on breakout, overturning and for the calculation of anchors for foundations.
New input tables:
- input tables for loads and design combinations of load by SNIP 2.01.07-85*, Eurocode, ACI 318-95 (USA), BAEL-91 (France), IBC-2000 (USA), DBN B.1.2-2:2006 (Ukraine), STB EN 1990-2007 (Belarus), SP 20.13330.2011/2016 (Russia), SP RK EN 1990:2002+A1:2005/2011 (Kazakhstan), TCP EN 1990-2011*(02250) (Belarus);
- input table with option to define and modify forces in the bars of the current problem;
- input table for generating masses from static loads.
Input tables help you simplify the process to define input data (in some cases) and to transfer data between design models. In the input table for forces it is possible to modify the forces before combinations are calculated.
Analysis of punching shear contours in case the column 'body' is taken into account with bars of high stiffness (HSBs). Unlike PRB, the properties of high stiffness bars may be modified. So if necessary, you could modify the stiffness, define the load and the degrees of freedom for the HSB, etc. Thus, it is possible for example, to simulate the buckling of the pylon ends; to reduce stress concentrations along the perimeter of the slab-to-column connection when the slab and the stiffening bars are heated together.
Option to calculate DCL (design combinations of loads) and DCF (design combinations of forces) for selected finite elements. The list of FEs is selected from a pre-defined list of elements. The list of elements may be generated for the model fragment, selected FEs and defined manually.
In the DCL and DCF calculations, excluded and non-computed mode shapes are taken into account.
FE type may be automatically modified when the stiffness is assigned to an element. When you assign the stiffness to an element, the program checks whether assigned stiffness type corresponds to the FE type. If they do not correspond, the FE type may be modified automatically.
New command that enables you to block any modification to the data (that may affect the FEA results) at any time when you work with the design model. An option to automatically block any modification to the data for FEA when analysis is complete.
When the 'Do no edit data for FEA' command is active, it is still possible to edit and calculate DCF and DCL, principal and equivalent stresses in finite elements (LITERA), reactions/loads at nodes (Load on Fragment) and design with the modules available in LIRA-SAPR (analysis of reinforcement, check of pilot reinforcement in RC and combined elements, analysis & design for cross-sections of metal elements, analysis of elements from masonry, analysis of masonry reinforcing structures).
For design procedure, stiffness values may be modified after the static and dynamic analysis of the model. For the Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Reinforcing Structures mode, modifications may be made only to the section dimensions, i.e. to change the section size. For Metal Structures mode, it is possible to add new section type as well as to change the profile number for a previously created section.
Option to automatically select elements adjacent to selected nodes and/or elements.
When you select elements by certain elevations and grid lines, all the filters defined for the PolyFilter are taken into account.
New filters to select elements to which materials are not assigned (reinforced concrete, metal, brickwork), i.e. that do not have input data for analysis & design.
In the 'Display' dialog box, new option to display (on the model) the distance between elevations.
In the 'Display' dialog box, if you define not to display one-node elements, bars, plates, solids and target bars of bar analogues, then the nodes that belong to these elements will be automatically hidden.
The information on the nodes and elements of design model is updated; information tabs that describe the input & output data for the new types of analyses.
New option to visualize the colour palette; when this option is active, the number of objects (as a percentage) in each range is displayed.
When the animation of the Time History Analysis results is enabled, it is possible to display the changes in reactions at nodes within the time
Option to save graphs of kinetic energy in
Enhanced options to define the simple triangulation contours:
- to fix the coordinates specified with a pointer when triangulation contour is defined 'By coordinates';
Enterkey is used to finish the input of triangulation contour ;
- added accuracy setting when triangulation contour is defined (use the Shift key to consider the intermediate nodes).
When triangulation contours with openings are defined, and you select additional nodes, the program will automatically ignore nodes located beyond the outer contour, within the inner contour and on the contours.
Option to save selection if you edit FE mesh when the 'To selected elements only' check box is selected in the 'Transform mesh of plate FE' dialog box.
New 'Compute Spectrum' tool to convert the graphs of acceleration (velocity, displacement) in time into a seismogram, velocigram, accelerogram and response spectrum graph. ReSpectrum
For dynamic modules 27 and 29, when generating the nodal response spectrum:
- – to consider an oscillator damping different from the system damping (user-defined);
- – to sum up by mode shapes with no regard to phase shift;
- – to enlarge the peak area of response spectrum and to reduce the amplitude within the narrow range of peak frequency.
Option to colour the directions of the principal axes N1 and N3 for plate elements.
For the 'Step-type Method' of analysis, new option to generate a set of nonlinear load cases based on the generated DCL tables.
Option to organize the nonlinear load cases (use the 'Move Up' and 'Move Down' commands).
Option to edit several selected histories or local load cases using the 'Modify' command for all analysis types.
For physically nonlinear problems with iterative elements, new tool to view and prepare documentation for calculated parameters of the stress-strain state for standard, metal types of sections and plates. The following output data is available in the 'Section (state)' dialog box for the iterative element selected to be displayed the data:
- mosaic plot of normal stress in the main/reinforcing material of the plates and bars;
- mosaic plot of relative strain in the main/reinforcing material of the plates and bars;
- mosaic plot of tangential stress ꚍxy in the main material for plate;
- mosaic plot of relative strain ɣxy in the main material for plate;
- mosaic plot of max stress σmax in the main material for plate;
- mosaic plot of relative strain εmax in the main material for plate.
'Section (state)' dialog box: stress mosaic plot in main material and reinforcement
Option to synchronize the view of analysis in the status bar: load cases, DCL, DCF, mode shapes and buckling modes), layer to view the calculated principal and equivalent stresses, intermediate steps in nonlinear problems, integration steps for time history analysis. In this mode, changes made to the graphical presentation of design model in one window will automatically apply to all open windows for all design models.
On the 'Summarize loads' menu there is a new mode for calculation both for the whole design model and for selected elements and nodes.
New mosaic plots are available:
- max stress in reinforcement and max relative strain of reinforcement along the X1, Y1 directions for iterative plates;
- nonlinear stress-strain diagrams assigned to the finite elements for the main material, the reinforcing material and the concrete creep laws;
- total area of a pilot longitudinal reinforcement in the bars;
- inelastic energy absorption coefficients Fmu;
- mass condensation;
- dynamic masses in the elements.
The panels on the ribbon user interface as well as the menus and toolbars of the classic interface are modified and extended with new commands.
Option to add comments to loads, it will simplify the process when different engineers work with the same design model.
Option to create and edit offsets for selected FEs included into structural elements (STE). To do this, in the current design option the program searches for STE that selected FEs belong to. Parameters for offsets are calculated for the whole chain of FE in every STE as if the chain of FEs forms a single bar. When an offset is defined along the X1-axis, the changes are applied only to the first and the last FE.
When coincident elements are packed, the elements to which the load is applied will have priority.
When required amount of concrete and reinforcement is calculated, new option to select the result if the reinforcement type 'symmetric and asymmetric' is specified for the bars.
When dynamic load cases are copied, the program copies data on the table for creating dynamic load cases from static ones as well as the settings for the table of dynamic load cases.
In the METEOR system, it is possible to add the file of integrated problem
*.t8mto the current list of problems.
Accelerated output of envelopes MIN/MAX/ABS by load cases/DCL/DCF.
The signs for forces in FE 55,255,265,295 depend on the order in which the elements are numbered, and the forces are calculated based on the difference of displacements between the second and first nodes. In the 'Local axes for FEs 55,255,265,295' dialog box, new command to swap the nodes that describe these elements.
Option to assign the stiffness coefficients to elements; they may be visualized as mosaic plots.
When selected bar is divided into two bars according to the specified distance, it is possible to select the node (of the bar) from which displacement should be done.
For the 'Copy by one node' command, several insertion nodes may be defined.
For the 'Add node at distance L' function, it is now possible to select a node (beginning/end of bar) relative to which the new node will be added.
When the 'Generate additional nodes at sides of FE ' option is applied to plates with a specified zero modulus of elasticity, nodes on the sides will not be generated.
Subproblems vs Blocks of load cases
In previous versions of the program, the design model could have a single set of stiffness properties and boundary conditions. However, there are problems in which the stiffness values of the elements should depend on the duration of loads. For example, in dynamic analysis it is usually necessary to replace the modulus of deformation with the modulus of elasticity for soil; this approach is also used for materials of structure. In previous versions you could modify only the stiffness of individual elements in a structure for selected assemblage stages with 'assemblage groups'. In version 2022 there is a new option to specify stiffness values not only for assemblage stages, but also for an arbitrary set of load cases. The set of load cases for which individual stiffness values are defined in design model is called a subproblem or block of load cases.
In version 2022 R1 it is possible to use different sets of subgrade moduli Pz, C1, C2, C1z, C2z, C1y, C2y within the same model. A unique set may be generated for each load case of design model - static, dynamic, every stage of assemblage, every load case in nonlinear history, etc. Load cases (static and dynamic) that may be computed by the same stiffness matrix are combined into a single block of load cases. Another criterion for division into blocks is the presence/absence of specified displacements in the load cases. That is, if displacement is defined in one load case at certain node along certain direction, and in another load case displacement is not defined at this node in this direction, and the restraint in this direction is not defined, then these load cases will be divided into separate blocks.
The FEA of a problem that includes subproblems is carried out as follows. The FEM solver detects subproblems in the input data file for FEA. For every subproblem, the FEA is carried out as for a separate problem - a new stiffness matrix is generated. After analysis procedure, the results of all subproblems are merged into the results of initial problem. Then such merged results will be used for all possible DCL/DCF calculations as well as for structural analysis & design (reinforced concrete, metal, brick).
The following limitations are applied to models with subproblems:
- For superelements, it is not allowed to define the sets of subgrade moduli. They still have a single stiffness matrix;
- Stability by DCL may be calculated only if all load cases included in the DCL belong to the same subproblem;
- Coefficients to modulus of elasticity cannot be used for nonlinear FE;
- Coefficients to the modulus of elasticity are not used in the 'NL Engineering 1'analysis.
From the non-obvious:
- for the time history analysis, the program will apply the set defined for dynamic load cases (prehistory load cases may have their own sets);
- for Pushover analysis, the program will apply the set defined for load case with inertial forces;
- for analysis on creep, the program will apply the set defined for the last load case in the nonlinear history.
To create subproblems and refer them to appropriate load cases, use 'Edit load cases' dialog box.
By default, no subproblems are created in the model; the 'Subproblem' drop-down list contains only one line 'Main problem' and the dialog box works in the same way as in version 2021. If no subproblems are created, all load cases refer to the main problem.
To open the 'Subproblems' dialog box (see Figure – Sets of properties for subproblems), use the Browse button [...]. Any number of subproblems may can be defined. The main problem cannot be removed from the list of subproblems. Then it is possible to refer certain load case to a specific subproblem.
When a load case becomes active, these subproblems are active. That is, when we switch the active load case, on mosaic plots C1, C2 we will see the subgrade moduli that correspond to the subproblem that includes the active load case. In the same way, in the 'Information about element' window, when you switch the load case, the subgrade moduli C1/C2 corresponding to the problem will be changed (see Figure - Sets of subgrade moduli for elastic foundation in different load cases).
In the input tables 'C1C2 Plates', 'C1C2 Bars' and 'C1C2 Special elements' there is a new parameter 'Subproblem', (see Figure - How to edit a set of subgrade moduli for elastic foundation with the 'Input table'), i.e. input tables may be also used to fill in/edit subgrade moduli for elastic foundation in subproblems.
To assign coefficients to the modulus of elasticity, new tool to visually check the assigned values with mosaic plot.
Important.In analysis of forced displacement at nodes, there is a new option to check the restraints in appropriate load directions for other load cases.
Option to generate the file with detailed information about the state of materials (main and reinforcement) in sections of iterative physically nonlinear elements. This option is available for all sections of bars and for plates.
Nonlinear thermal conductivity for plates. Option to define the dependence of the heat conductivity coefficient, thermal capacity coefficient and specific unit weight on the temperature.
In stability analysis, option to refer the elements of the model to one of the following two classes: the restraining elements and the pushing elements of the system. The restraining elements made for the stability of the system equilibrium, while the pushing elements cause the system to lose its stability. The sensitivity coefficient for restraining elements is > 0, for pushing elements < 0.
For earthquake analysis by linear spectral method, the excluded and non-computed mode shapes are taken into account in the same way as for the design of nuclear power plant structures. The relevant setting is available when the data is defined in the 'Table of dynamic load cases' dialog box.
Option to consider combined behaviour of components (degrees of freedom) according to a given diagram for FE 255, 256. It is possible to define behaviour diagrams for vector sums of the following components: (X+Y) and (X+Y+Z). The diagram is described by 3 values – the 1st modulus of elasticity (R, t/m), the 2nd modulus of elasticity (R2, t/m), kink in the diagram (N, t). Any set of diagrams for individual components and combinations of vector sums of components may be defined, but each component should be included only once. That is, for example, if a diagram is described separately for X, then X can no longer be included in any combination of vector sums. The output data for FE 255, 256 is presented as it was earlier - forces along the corresponding directions of the local coordinate system Rx,Ry,Rz, Rux,Ruy,Ruz. For example, this is necessary to simulate seismic isolators as rubber-metal supports that have a circular cross-section. The figure below shows that if the ultimate force of equal value are defined separately for the local X1 and Y1 axes it will cause a larger ultimate force for load at any other angle in the plane. If we define the ultimate force for the vector sum of components (X+Y), we get the same ultimate force for the load at any angle in the plane
Enhanced situation with the wind pulsation analysis (dynamics module 21), when the mode shapes that have frequency less than the ultimate one did not coincide with the static wind direction and so the calculated inertial forces were close to zero. Formula for calculating modal masses in analysis on pulsation component is presented; modal masses for all mode shapes are calculated by this formula in the analysis. In the dialogue box 'Wind analysis parameters with pulsation', parameter 'Min sum of modal masses for mode shapes that have frequency less than ultimate value' is added for analysis according to option (c) of sect.6.7 SNIP 2.01.07-85 as a percentage.
Now if the sum of modal masses of vibration mode shapes( that have a frequency less than the ultimate value) is less than the specified value of the sum of modal masses in % or there are no such frequencies at all, then analysis is carried out according to option (a) of sect.6.7 SNIP 2.01.07-85, otherwise by option (c) of the same section.
Modal masses of vibration mode shapes are displayed in the table with periods of vibrations for analysis on pulsation, just as for a single-component earthquake load.
The FE library contains new finite elements that are analogues of existing FE 56 and FE 62: one-node damper with six degrees of freedom FE 66 and two-node damper FE 65. In the description of the stiffness for the new FEs, it is possible to define the viscous damping ratio along six directions, for linear directions the measurement units are t/(m/s), for angular ones in (t*m)/(rad/s).
The new FEs may be used to describe external damping devices that respond to the velocity of nodal displacement along the directions of DOF in global coordinate system. It is assumed that viscous damping is implemented, that is, the resistance to motion is proportional to the corresponding velocity component. The viscous damping ratios are defined for each nodal translation (rotation) independently and do not influence each other.
New FEs may be used for dynamic analysis only for direct integration of the equations of motion, that is, in the Time History Analysis system. Other modes of analysis do not react in any presence of this FE in the design model.
For each dynamic load, it is now possible to specify a list of FEs in which masses will be collected at nodes.
For every element of the model it is possible to use unique increasing factor fvk for the certain earthquake module. This option enables the user to correct obtained earthquake forces, e.g. for cases where the building is classified as irregular along the height due to significant increase in mass or reduction in stiffness of vertical load-bearing structures in one or more storeys compared to other adjacent storeys. By default, the coefficient fvk for all elements of the design model is equal to one. An appropriate mosaic plot is available to check and prepare documentation of input data.
When analysis is carried out with check of parameters, it is possible to consider user-defined criteria for termination of analysis. The following criteria may be defined:
- max allowed displacement along the specified directions;
- geometric variability along the specified directions;
- buckling mode along the specified directions.
A full geometric stiffness matrix is included in the analysis with geometric nonlinearity for bars. This option enables you to estimate the lateral-torsional buckling and to find its contribution to the safety factor.
For all available nonlinear stress-strain diagrams for the main material and reinforcement, new option to use the 'K' coefficient to correct the values of ultimate stress.
Linear and nonlinear analyses as well as generation of the output data files are modified due to the introduction of 'Subproblems' and 'Blocks of load cases'.
Enhanced time history analysis on seismogram. Velocities and accelerations are considered at nodes where a seismogram is specified.
Enhanced account for shear in the mass matrix for a bar.
New stress-strain diagrams for concrete: 19 - polynomial stress-strain diagram for concrete and 22 - nonlinear parabolic stress-strain diagram for concrete.
To describe diagram 19, in the 'Parameters for stress-strain diagram' table, define the values for the following parameters:
- initial modulus of elasticity in compression Ecm(−);
- initial modulus of elasticity in tension Ectm(+);
- max strength of the concrete in axial tension fcm(−);
- max strength of concrete in compression fctm(+);
- ultimate relative compressove strain of concrete εcu(−), εcu2;
- relative strain of concrete at max compressive stress εc(−), εc2;
- ultimate relative tensile strain of concrete εctu(+);
- relative strain of concrete at max tensile stress εct(+).
To describe diagram 22, in the 'Parameters for stress-strain diagram' table, define the values for the following parameters:
- initial modulus of elasticity in compression Ec(−), Eck (Ecd);
- initial modulus of elasticity in tension Ect(+), Ectk (Ectd);
- max strength of concrete in axial tension fc(−), fck (fcd);
- max strength of concrete in compression fct(+), fctk (fctd);
- ultimate relative compressive strain of concrete εcu(−), εcu2;
- relative strain of concrete at max compressive stress εc(−), εc2;
- ultimate relative tensile strain of concrete εctu(+);
- relative strain of concrete at max tensile stress εct(+);
- degree of the polynomial n.
For stability analysis, it is now possible to display the contribution of each mode shape to the total energy of the system. This data is displayed in analysis protocol.
It is now possible to pause the analysis procedure. It is helpful when during a time-consuming analysis procedure it is necessary to use computer resources for other applications. In the pause mode, the FEM-solver does not use CPU resources, does not perform any operation with disk, but continues to occupy the certain amount of RAM that was indicated before the pause.
Deformations of foundation beds are computed from soil consolidation and creep. This feature is available for SP RK 5.01-102-2013, DBN B.2.1-10:2009 and SP 22.13330.2011/2016. The proposed method for calculation of settlements due to consolidation and creep will be useful in solving problems for determining settlements of water-saturated soils over time where the total deformation of foundation bed is determined by the sum of instantaneous settlement, settlement caused by consolidation and settlement caused by creep (secondary consolidation).
The data for the calculation are collected on the special tabs in the 'Soil properties' dialog box. The consolidation may be calculated without account of secondary consolidation, this is necessary to find out the contribution of the relevant component and to check the calculated values.
The presented method for calculation may be used to consider the compliance of elastic foundation for the system 'overground structure – foundation – soil’. Such models are necessary to perform a series of calculations and to obtain an integrated model in METEOR system to consider modifications in elastic foundation during all stages of loading and the modified soil properties throughout the life cycle of the building/structure.
Option to calculate additional component of settlement for any time interval t due to soil consolidation. The calculation is carried out according to formulas 7.5-7.7 sect.22.214.171.124 of NTP RK 07-01.4-2012.
Option to calculate additional component of settlement due to creep. The calculation is carried out according to formula 7.16 sect.126.96.36.199 of NTP RK 07-01.4-2012.
In the SOIL system, the calculation of subgrade moduli for bars (now only FE10) is provided. It is possible to assign Pz to bars in the input data and to export Rz from the output data for subsequent iterative refinement of C1, C2 (the arithmetic mean between the values Rz in bar sections that are less than zero is converted into Pz, i.e. the tension C1, like for plates, is not transferred to the input data). By default the SOIL system receives the strip width equal to the width of the cross-section B. But if the 'Bz=B' option is not selected when you define Pz, it will be possible to specify a strip width different from the width of the cross-section B (for example to consider the contribution of concrete bedding to the stress distribution on the foundation). The modulus of subgrade reaction from the SOIL system is assigned to the bar from the arithmetic mean of C1, C2 obtained in the gravity centres of the two loads applied on the sides of the bar axis with an overhang Bc/2. To get subgrade moduli that are variable along the strip length, divide the bar into individual FEs.
It is possible to display each component of the settlements in pile foundations (Sef - settlement of equivalent foundation, ΔSp - additional settlement due to pile penetration at the bottom of equivalent foundation, ΔSc - additional settlement due to compression of pile shaft) and settlements from different specific soils - Ss. Contribution of each settlement component is displayed in the output data at any point in the model within the load contours. This implementation is also supported for the graphical presentation of contour plots (it is possible to show or hide each settlement component, then the contour plots and colour palette will be rearranged for the selected set).
The load-bearing capacity of piles may be displayed with account of partial safety factors. The dialog box appears to display the mosaic plot N/Fd (ratio of acting load on pile to bearing capacity).
Calculation of the end-bearing piles. The settlement is determined as for friction piles with widening. The bearing capacity of soil is calculated as the greater of the two values: Fdb - bearing capacity of the rock foundation under the pile toe, Fds - bearing capacity of the pile with account of only resistance of the rock soils along its lateral surface. If Fdb > Fds then the whole stiffness of the pile will be applied at its base, if Fds > Fdb then the stiffness will be applied only along the pile length. To specify rocky soils, in the table of soil properties, define additional data: Rc - ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of rocky soil in water-saturated state (design value), Ks - coefficient for account of strength reduction because of cracks in rocky soils (see Table 7.1 in SP 24.13330). If the pile length or pile toe contacts the rocky soil, then calculation will be made as for the pile in rocky soil. If there is a non-rocky soil under the rocky soil or if the pile cuts through the rocky soil, then during the calculation you will see the warning: '[ ! ] The rocky soil has weak strata. The load-bearing capacity of the end-bearing pile Fd should be taken from the results of the static load test'.
Extended options to limit and check the min depth of compressible soil Hc. The min depth of the compressible stratum should be specified in absolute value under load and also with a new option by specifying the lower absolute elevation of the soil model (Hc, min will be considered up to the limit of this elevation).
Previously, the Hc value was used to determine the settlement for all loads specified in the model regardless of the actual width of each foundation (usually this value was determined for max width of all foundations in the model). Now, the min depth of compressible stratum may be specified not only for the entire model but it may be considered individually for each load. In the properties of loads, there is an appropriate option to check the Hc.
New option to search for Hc for the weak soils. In the calculation parameters you could define modulus of deformation for the weak soil. Default values correspond to the selected building code. In case of automatic search for the weak soil, the following algorithm is applied:
- Hc calculation is carried out with defined coefficient for depth compressible stratum - λ
- If calculated Hc<Hc,min, then Hc=Hc,min
- If the compressible stratum ends in weak soils:
- Hc is calculated with a coefficient for the depth of compressible stratum equal to 0.1(0.2) depending on the selected building code;
- Hc is calculated; it is limited with the bottom of the weak soil;
- from calculations (a) and (b), the lower value of Hc is selected.
If Hc from the calculation by sect.3(a) is less than the value by sect.3(b), and at the same time the value Hc by sect.3(a) is greater than Hc from sect.2, then the final value Hc is taken as equal to Hc by sect.3(a). Otherwise, Hc is equal to sect.3(b).
The soil settlement from the pile Sp is taken into account when calculating the stiffness of the pile as an equivalent foundation by method 1 in the average modulus of deformation E and in the moduli of subgrade reaction C1 and C2. If the equivalent pile foundation is simulated in the SOIL system, and the pile shaft is not simulated with the chain of FEs, then both Sp and Sc (compression of the pile shaft) will be taken into account. In case where the pile foundation is simulated with the chain of bars, the compression of pile shaft Sc is automatically taken into account in the FEA.
In the calculation of piles (FE 57) in the SOIL system as an equivalent foundation, the dead weight of the pile body will be considered as equal to zero.
In the calculation of Sp (soil settlement from the pile), condition E1≤E2 is added for the checked for modulus of deformation for soil along the pile length (E1) and under the pile (E2).
When calculating a single pile as an equivalent foundation, the pile step Acp = 3*D for a circular pile and Acp = 3*(B+H)/2 for a rectangular pile. The radius of the equivalent foundation Reqv = Acp/2.
New option to calculate the horizontal stiffness Rx and Ry in FE 57 in case the soil resistance is distributed along the pile length' according to results of field tests'. Horizontal stiffness of the pile may be obtained from the soil model. Appropriate setting is added to the list of properties for the pile group - 'calculation of horizontal pile stiffness'.
In the 'Pile groups' dialog box, new option to check the number of piles defined in the model.
For DBN B.2.1-10:2009, calculation of settlements for specific soils: collapsive, saline, expansive, filled up and organic soils.
- Measurement units may be converted to define pressure (P) in properties of specific soils for cases where settings different from default ones (t/m2) are applied.
- In the 'Arbitrary soil profile' window of the SOIL system, the excavation pit is displayed only for loads for which the 'Calculate stress from excavated soil' option is selected.
- By default, the window for the check of coordinate system is disabled.
- For the SOIL system, the new option to show/hide the piles and numbers of pile groups.
- For the SOIL system, the elements of user interface are adapted to work with high resolution UHD and 4K monitor.
- Option to assign individual settings for constructed soil in each subgroup of loads. So, in the design model you could define the constructed soil of variable capacity.
- Updated calculation of stiffness and settlement of piles.
- To calculate the pile stiffness by model of equivalent foundation, the option to specify the average pile step; the following options are available for the pile group:
- Acp is equal to the average step of piles in the pile group (determined automatically as earlier);
- Аср is equal to the average step of piles in the pile group, but not more than 2*Reqv, where Reqv is a value used to determine dimension of equivalent foundation;
- Аср is equal to the average step of piles in the pile group, but not more than a specified value;
- Acp is equal to the specified distance.
Reinforced Concrete Structures
For plate elements, a new algorithm to check equilibrium and calculate stress and strain at arbitrary points in the section. Based on the Wood-Armer method, a new variant is provided for selection and check of reinforcement for the ultimate and serviceability limit states. This method makes it possible to speed up analysis of reinforcement and to obtain a smoother distribution of reinforcement in the plane of plate. The new algorithm is available for analysis according to SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, EN 1992-1-1:2004, DBN B.2.6-98:2009, TKP EN 1992-1-1:2009, DSTU-B EN 1992-1-1:2010, SP 63.13330.2018.
The reserve factor for the pilot reinforcement may be computed according to the following building codes: SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, EN 1992-1-1:2004, DBN B.2.6-98:2009, TKP EN 1992-1-1:2009, SP 63.13330.2018. It is now possible to compute the reserve factor for cross, angle and asymmetric T-sections.
Analysis of composite (metal and RC) sections according to DBN B.2.6-98:2009.
For DBN B.2.6-98:2009, analysis of RC sections on fire resistance according to DSTU H B EN 1992-1-2:2012.
For DBN B.2.6-98:2009, it is possible to use characteristic (normative) strength of concrete and reinforcement in analysis of special and earthquake loads (group D1 and C1).
New analysis mode 'Additional Reinforcement'. For elements where RC materials and sets of Pilot Reinforcement (PR) types are defined, in this mode you could obtain the size and location of the reinforcement area that is absent but required to provide the load-bearing capacity of the section.
Two modes for analysis of additional reinforcement are provided for convenience:
'YES' – to obtain areas of additional reinforcement only in the elements where the specified reinforcement area is not adequate to ensure the load-bearing capacity of the section;
'YES/RF' - to obtain the area of reinforcement that is absent but required in certain elements and to obtain a reserve factor for elements where the load-bearing capacity is ensured.
Analysis results for additional reinforcement are displayed on design model as mosaic plots. For the 'YES/RF' mode, the value of reserve factor is displayed on design model in the standard way. Elements where additional reinforcement is required are displayed in the colour of the range RF < 1.
Analysis results of additional reinforcement are presented in a table (in text format). Required area of reinforcement or reserve factor or error code may be displayed as analysis results for additional reinforcement.
For DBN B.2.6-98:2009, the FS factor is calculated according to МТТ.0.03.326-13 'Earthquake stability analysis for elements of active NPP by method of boundary seismic capacity'. The seismic component for such calculation is generated in DCL calculation or is set additionally in the local mode (LARM-SAPR). In LARM-SAPR module it is possible to view the analysis protocol.
For SP RK EN 1992-1-1:2004/2011, EN 1992-1-1:2004, TKP EN 1992-1-1:2009 and SP 63.13330.2018, analysis of pilot reinforcement in shear forces is available for plate elements
For SP 63.13330.2018, in the AvAnGArD system it is possible to display the stress and strain diagrams for all specified or exported (from the local mode) combinations of normative forces. In case of cracks, their depth is displayed.
For SP 63.13330.2018, option to take into account the recommendations of sect.6.1.23.
Option to define the types of pilot transverse reinforcement for plate elements and, in design mode to check elements in shear forces.
New option to automatically create the pilot transverse reinforcement for plates based on mosaic plot of selected reinforcement and the settings of colour palette for the output data.
When PR types are defined for plate elements, there is an option to use the reinforcement snap defined in materials; in this case only intensity of reinforcement may be defined as the input data.
For plate elements, when PR types are defined it is possible to arrange reinforcement symmetrically. Seven symmetry options are available; full symmetry, symmetry by faces and layers.
Punching shear analysis is added in problems with the Time History Analysis
Combinations for the serviceability limit state are excluded when design combinations of loads (DCL) are generated for punching shear analysis.
Option to calculate consumption of reinforcing steel according to defined PR types. The calculation can be carried out for all elements of the model or for selected elements. This option is available in the 'Required Amount of Concrete and Reinforcement' dialog box in the mode of RC structures.
Analysis of aluminium structures according to SP 128.13330.2016 (main types of profiles: I-beam, welded I-beam, angle, channel, T-section, rectangular tubular section and asymmetric I-section). Warping (without pure torsion) is considered in analysis. To cover all possible section shapes provided by factories, it is possible to add custom section types in the steel tables and use such tables in analysis & design of sections/elements.
The following types of stress state are identified in analysis of bars in aluminium structures: truss (longitudinal force N), beam (bending moments My, Mz, shear forces Qz and Qy, bimoment Mw), column (longitudinal force N, bending moments My, Mz, shear forces Qz, Qy and bimoment Mw), universal (elements are analysed by all calculation procedures and the most unfavourable result is selected in the final utilization ratio).
The selected type of steel table determines the data that will be used in the check/select for the section. For example, if an arbitrary section is checked as I-section, then the section shape factor η corresponding to the layout and eccentricity of the section presented in table E.3 will be used in the stability analysis.
Local strengthening for free overhang, different types of thickening in the check of local buckling are not taken into account in the new version.
New tab for available aluminium section types is added to the stiffness library.
In the 'Stiffness and Materials' dialog box, the 'Steel' tab is renamed as 'Metal'.
The steel tables for steel and alloy are extended with information on modulus of elasticity, shear modulus and density. In case this data is not defined, default values will be applied.
Files of steel tables are selected by their extensions
*.aluminum.srt, as well as by the internal feature set in the steel table.
The set of 'Additional parameters' depends on the selected current profile type (steel or aluminium) and is extended with the choice of temperature for the structure (-70...-40, -40...+50,+50...+100) and a new list of allowed slenderness ratio.
Since in SP 128.13330.2016 there are no recommendations for analysis on progressive collapse and analysis of the structure for deflections, these analyses are carried out similar to previously implemented analysis according to SP 16.13330.2017.
Option to ignore support sections from stability analysis, i.e. to use M1 - the largest bending moment within the middle third of the bar length; the moment should be at least 0.5Mmax
In the case of structural elements, the relevant value is selected within the middle third of the total length of all FEs.
It is possible to manage analysis of metal structures in the 'Design options' and 'Check parameters for analysis and/or design' dialog boxes; so you could enable / disable the check / selection of sections in certain design options based on defined analysis parameters and to save defined parameters for future analyses.
In analysis of steel structures, earthquake load may be defined as a quasi-static component of load. In earlier versions, for such load combinations, only the label (that the loads were static) was transferred to the analysis of steel structures.
For DBN B.2.6-198:2014, the seismic safety factor FS and appropriate HCLPF value (High Confidence Low Probability of Failure) are calculated according to МТТ.0.03.326-13 'Earthquake stability analysis for elements of active NPP by method of boundary seismic capacity'. The output data for every check is available in standard tables or as mosaic plots
The ReSpectrum module is mentioned to generate response spectrum of a single-mass oscillator from dynamic loads defined with accelerograms, seismograms, velocigrams and three-component accelerograms, as well as to mutually convert these loads (accelerogram → seismogram, accelerogram → velocigram, seismogram → accelerogram, seismogram → velocigram, velocigram → seismogram, velocigram → accelerogram).
Input data: file with load record (file format - one figure in a line with a decimal point), duration, discretization step, scale multiplier, load type - seismogram, velocigram, accelerogram, three-component accelerogram. Additional data for response spectrum: frequency range, frequency step, damping factor.
When the load record is downloaded, its graph is displayed and a balance is checked. If an unbalanced load record is saved, the unbalancing parameters (residual components in the conversion) are displayed and the 'Balance' checkbox appears. Load record is balanced with a polynomial function that takes into account the residual components of conversions.
The ReSpectrum module implements a widening of the horizontal segment of the peak response spectrum, as well as a reduction in the amplitude of the narrow-frequency peak
For every peak in response spectrum, horizontal segment is extended to a segment length equal to 0.3 of the peak frequency. The lines that generates the peak are moved parallel to the length of horizontal segment. In combination with the widening of response spectrum peak, there may be a 15% reduction in the amplitude of the narrow-frequency peak. This reduction should be applied only to narrow frequency peaks of the non-widened response spectrum with the ration of strip width to centre frequency 𝐵 is less than 0.30:
𝐵=∆𝑓0.8/𝑓𝑐 < 0.30
∆𝑓0.8 is the general frequency range by spectral amplitudes that exceed 80% of the peak spectral amplitude;
𝑓𝑐 is the central frequency for frequencies that exceed 80% of the peak amplitude.
The conversion results may be saved either as an image (*.png file) or as a txt file to use further in LIRA-SAPR analysis or as a *.csv file (Excel spreadsheet).
To activate this module from the VISOR-SAPR environment, use the 'Compute spectrum' ('Analysis' tab, 'Dynamics' panel).
Bar Analogues (BA)
- When bar analogues are generated automatically, new cross-sectional shapes are available to be recognised: channel section and box section. BA generated in this way may be used in analysis of reinforced concrete walls.
- Option to use an increasing factor fvk when the forces from the earthquake load are determined.
Cross-section Design Toolkit
New option to import beam sections from 'SAPFIR-RC' into this module. The forces in the selected section are automatically displayed in the force table for all load cases for which the analysis is carried out and for all design load combinations.
For rebar items, new option to define a prestress value that will be applied when the stress strain state of the section is computed.
For solids, strip elements and rebar items, the option to define a prestrain value in analysis procedure.
In the 'Flags of drawing' dialog box, new options to graphically display material identifiers assigned to the elements and to adjust the font size for these labels, as well as the settings for scale and line thickness to display the results in strip elements.
Steel Rolled Shapes (SRS-SAPR module)
User interface elements are adapted to be used with high resolution UHD and 4K monitors.
Option to create aluminium alloys and profiles as well as from any other materials
It is possible to add custom section types (created in the 'Cross-section Design Toolkit' module) to the steel tables. It helps you conveniently store and consider such sections in FEA (with stiffness properties) as well as in analysis & design of aluminium structures.
New tables of aluminium alloys are added:
- aluminium alloy, drawn tube (DT), building code EN 754 (EN 1999-1-1:2007);
- aluminium alloy, extruded profile (EP), EN 755 building code (EN 1999-1-1:2007);
- aluminium alloy, extruded hollow profile (EP/H), EN 755 building code (EN 1999-1-1:2007);
- aluminium alloy, extruded open profile (EP/O), building code EN 755 (EN 1999-1-1:2007;
- aluminium alloy, extruded rod and bar (ER/B), building code EN 755 (EN 1999-1-1:2007;
- aluminium alloy, extruded tube (ET), EN 755 building code (EN 1999-1-1:2007);
- aluminium alloy, sheets, strips and plates, EN 485 building code (EN 1999-1-1:2007;
- aluminium alloy, extruded profile, building code GOST R 56282-2014 (SP 128.13330.2016);
- aluminium alloy, slabs, building code GOST 17232-99 (SP 128.13330.2016);
- aluminium alloy, sheets, building code GOST 21631-76 (SP 128.13330.2016).
Demo tables of aluminium profiles are added.
The tables of profiles and alloys may be expanded upon individual requests to the Support Team.
The tables of input/output data are expanded with new input/output data.
In standard tables, there is new filter to generate extreme values for results, e.g. forces (by sections) and/or at the ends of structural elements (in the first and last design cross-sections). The table will be also helpful to generate extreme values for the whole set of design cross-sections in elements (plates, solids, etc.).
This is a tabular presentation of the sample by min/max/abs output data (earlier displayed only graphically).
This filter is available for the whole list of output tables including design modules.
The output table of displacement and forces for intermediate steps in nonlinear analysis is available.
The layout (pagination) template is now saved in a ZIP file and extracted from the ZIP archive of the problem together with the report book (by default, the templates are located at the following path: C:\Users\Public\Documents\LIRA SAPR\LIRA SAPR 20x\Settings). The template files Book_en_A4.docx, book_ru_a4.docx, Book_ua_A4.docx are added to the TEMPL.zip archive so that the user has their initial version.
For the screen copies, the shortcut menu in the Report Book contains new command to select (on the model) the nodes and elements for which documentation is prepared.
- Check for horizontal load with account of combined behaviour of lateral and longitudinal walls. This analysis is based on algorithm that automatically determines shape of partitions and evaluates mutual arrangement of longitudinal and transverse wall elements. Output data is presented as mosaic plots and corresponding tables. Moreover, for each group of partitions it is possible to view detailed protocol with tracing; it helps you check the order of all calculations.