- Corrected: mosaic plot for destructed nolinear bars; mosaic plot is generated from analysis results of physically nonlinear problems
- In geometric transformation of finite elements (intersection, division, union of FE): clarified location of linear distributed loads applied to the plate rib in transformed elements
- Arranged: simultaneous presentation of elevations and masonry levels on design model
- Resolved: repetition of certain colours in adjusted colour palettes for reinforcement when you edit ranges
- Clarified: information data in the working window of the program when you display total selected reinforcement for bars (as diagrams)
- Added: changes in measurement units when mosaic plots of accelerations are displayed
- Corrected: update of list of stiffnesses from FEA in the ‘Stiffness and materials’ dialog box for Undo/Redo options
- Correñted: possible program crash in case ‘Select vertical bars’ and ‘Select horizontal bars’ modes were defined - when you select elements according to the list in PolyFilter
- Corrected: inaccuracies in presentation of problems with assemblage; such inaccuracies occurred when you switched from the mode of analysis results (by assemblage stages) to the mode of input data when you work with the model fragment
- Corrected: scale in graphic presentation of reactions on fragment
- Corrected: visualization (on the model) of offsets in bars when mosaic plots of analysis results and properties are displayed
- Restored: option to use special ‘Dynamics-plus’ solver for analysis of nonlinear problems
- Added: option to check data about criteria of rupture defined in parameters of nonlinear stress-strain diagrams for main materials in plate elements
- Eliminated: possible failure in analysis of reactions on fragment; such failure occurred when you deleted on the model all nodes included into the list of the fragment and start analysis of the fragment
- Clarified: algorithm to select and check reinforcement for circular columns according to DBN B.2.6-98:2009, no delay in analysis of reinforcement
- Clarified: design parameters in punching shear analysis of RC slabs
- Added: check of multi-contour option in analysis of reinforcement for RC bars of rectangular and circular sections and bars with composite (steel & concrete) sections
- In analysis of reinforcement in bars with circular pipe section, clarified: ‘Asymmetry’ feature in parameters of RC materials
- Added: additional checks when you save (to)/download (from) file of RC materials, and when you transfer data about RC materials to analysis of reinforcement
Pilot reinforcement (PR)
- Clarified: location of mesh reinforcement in cross-section of plates for physically nonlinear analysis in case you use types of pilot reinforcement (PR) and reinforcement is described as formula (rebar diameter – mesh spacing)
- Clarified: parameters of cracks in plate elements for cases when reinforcement is defined with types of pilot reinforcement (PR) - in physically nonlinear problems for RC elements and when you use NL engineering 2
- Clarified: total reinforcement for PR types that have coincident rebars - in physically nonlinear problems for RC elements, when reinforcement is defined with types of pilot reinforcement (PR)
- When you edit parameters of PR types, the program saves data about previously defined nonlinear stress-strain diagram for reinforcement
- When you edit parameters of PR types, if data is defined in tabular format (in the left part of the dialog box), it will be simultaneously displayed in the right part of the dialog box and vice versa
- When you modify dimensions of the dialog box for PR types, the zone for ‘Exact PR type’ will be scaled automatically
- Corrected: check of hollow sections in steel columns
- Added: analysis of steel structures in METEOR system for generalized problem, generated with DCL (characteristic)
- Clarified: algorithm for calculation of DCF for problems with assemblage stages and problems with time history analysis
- Clarified: calculation of pile stiffness when pile is located in the pile group and with account of mutual interaction
- Clarified: analysis of bearing capacity of piles in earthquake of 9 units of magnitude for clay soils with yielding 0...0.75, and account of hd according to sect.12.4 SP 24.13330.2011 for low beam grillage
- Extended zones for values of soil parameters inn order to present them correctly on the model
Cross-section Design Toolkit
- The ‘Cross-section Design Toolkit’ module starts correctly from the main window of VISOR-SAPR module in some cases with nonstandard settings of working directories
- When design model is restored from the screenshots previously saved in the Report Book, deformed shapes are presented with account of the saved scale of displacements
- No limitations on allowed size of design models in calculation of principal and equivalent stresses and in generation of certain types of text tables
- Enhanced presentation of colour palette elements when you print screen shots
- Restored: option to save model in version SAPFIR 2016, 2015 and earlier.
- Enhanced: option to cut analytical models of columns and beams for arbitrary plane.
- When load is generated on the 'Floor plan' view, the warning is displayed that loads are not displayed on this view.
- Corrected: option to copy load within the storey.
- Enhanced: selection of load when 'selection window' is used.
- Enhanced: generation of punching shear contours at the column base (bottom punching shear).
- Enhanced: option to cut selected walls in the AutoCut mode.
- For floor plans, restored: option to generate objects by layers that contain objects with steel sections and to create piles and columns by contour defined with a circle.
- For SAPFIR study version (Academic Set), new option to transfer to VISOR-SAPR the earthquake load cases and design levels for analysis of masonry.
- Enhanced: filter for selection by parameters for openings and spaces.
- Corrected: error in work with floor plan if parameter 'Indicate on plan' is defined for zones with another thickness generated in the slab.
- Corrected: presentation of boundary conditions when the floor slab is rotated.
- Corrected: determining base point of the door in case the door is moved.
- Corrected: program crash when you generate elevation for certain detail view of dowels into columns from foundation slab.
- Corrected: minor errors when you deleted node 'Door' with the keyboard and when you connect node 'Access to input parameter' (InPar).
Tekla Structures – LIRA-SAPR – Tekla Structures
Two-way integration LIRA-SAPR 2018 and Tekla Structures 2018.
Converter Tekla Structures – LIRA-SAPR – Tekla Structures enables the user to carry out comprehensive analysis and design of steel and RC structures.
Current version LIRA-SAPR supports two-way integration with Tekla Structures versions: 21.0; 21.1; 2016; 2017; 2017i; 2018
Data transfer Revit – LIRA-SAPR – Revit
- Added: two-way integration between LIRA-SAPR 2018 and Revit 2019.
- Corrected: LIRA-SAPR plugin error that occurred when you tried to edit the column family.
- Export of design model from Revit:
- resolved conflict in work with LIRA-SAPR 2017
- corrected import of circular openings
- dimensions of RC sections are rounded to 1 mm
- Import of selected reinforcement to Revit:
- enhanced import of reinforcement for design models (according to real examples provided by our users);
- added option to import models where not all bar elements have analytical models.
- Added: compatibility with ÀutoCAD 2019.
- Added (visualization of design model based on Direct3D technology): work with super-element models and presentation of design model in dimetric projection.
- No limitations for scaling of design model.
- Added: new function for analysis of geometric properties of the model - computing total length of selected bars L, total area of selected plates S, total volume of selected solids V. This function will be also helpful when you compute volumes, check loads and make other local computations.
- Enhanced: options to generate and edit offsets for bars, such as technology to define and edit offsets in bars; list of parameters for offsets in bars.
- To evaluate the input data, new modes for mosaic plots are introduced to display geometry of elements and their properties, such as FE type, length of offsets in plates, parameters for offsets in bars, length of projections of offsets in bars along the local X1, Y1, Z1- axes. Now mosaic plots of properties and geometry may be activated from appropriate dialog boxes as well.
- Enhanced: algorithm for presentation of offsets when design model is displayed either in isometric or in dimetric projections and in rotation.
- Added: option to generate DCF according to results of Time history analysis.
- Corrected: generation of normative DCF for short-term loads with duration coefficient predefined as equal to 0.
- Added: account of instant load when generating the 1st main combination DCF in cases when the unloading/separation occurs in elements of the structure.
- Restored: option to define projective load on plate elements.
- Corrected: error in reading user-defined RC materials defined in previous versions of LIRA-SAPR.
- Corrected: summing up nodal loads when computing the overturning moment.
- For building code SP RK 2.03-30-2017 (Kazakhstan), it is possible to define increasing factors fvk to elements of the model. To check and evaluate the model, the user could display appropriate mosaic plot for defined increasing factors.
- Added: option to unify axes of FE of platform joint in case when design model is generated without 'Large panel buildings' system.
- When computing pile stiffness (FE 57), the effect of low beam grillage may be considered.
- Added: in analysis of pile stiffness with account of earthquake, partial safety factors γeq1 and γeq2 are added according to table 12.1 SP 24.13330.2011. Appropriate settings are also available in parameters for determining theoretical bearing capacity of pile foundation.
- Modified and enhanced: panels of ribbon user interface, menu and toolbars in classical UI.
- Added: support of building code SP RK 2.03-30-2017 (Kazakhstan) sect. 7.6.6 about introducing correction factor fvk to increase design effects from earthquake load in elements of storeys at the level where mass and/or stiffness values are significantly changed.
- For all dynamic load cases in every mode shape, in analysis protocol you will see direction cosines of translation from the requirement of max dynamic reaction. This option enables the user to determine dangerous direction of dynamic load.
- Corrected: work of the program in Windows 10 for super-elements in which length of names is greater than 8 characters.
Reinforced Concrete Structures
Analysis of concrete structures with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) rebars
- Analysis of structures with FRP rebars according to SP 63.13330.2012. Concrete and reinforced concrete structures. General rules. Appendix L.
- Analysis with FRP rebars is realized for the following types of standard sections: rectangular bar, T-section with table at the top, T-section with table at the bottom, I-section, box, ring, circle, cross, angle sections, asymmetric T-section with table at the top, asymmetric T-section with table at the bottom.
Analysis with FRP rebars is realized for plate elements: shells, slabs, wall-beams.
FRP rebars may be used as longitudinal and transverse reinforcement.
- According to Appendix L to SP 63.13330.2012, FRP rebars takes only tension.
Pilot reinforcement (PR)
- The 'Define and edit types of pilot reinforcement (PR)' dialog box
- labelling for types of pilot reinforcement (PR types) is proposed;
- added commands to assign(cancel) PR types to(from) elements of design model in more convenient way in the list of PR types;
- when generating types of PR, for rectangular and circular sections it is possible to use the distance from section edges to reinforcement items from the set of parameters that are defined in the 'Material properties for analysis of RC structures' dialog box and referred to the element where PR type will be assigned to;
- for types of pilot reinforcement for rectangular section with arrangement of longitudinal rebars uniformly along the section edge, there is an option 'Assign symmetrically'. This option simplifies the process for assigning reinforcement for such structural elements of the model as pylons.
- Added: option to generate PR types for rectangular section based on results of selected area of reinforcement.
- In strength analysis and general stability analysis of bending elements (in steel structures) that have shape of I-section or channel and in strength analysis when there is an axial force with bending, the program considers stresses that occur as result of deplanation (bimoment) according to sect. 8.2.1, 8.2.3, 8.4.1 and 9.1.1 SP 16.13330.2017.
Thus, LIRA-SAPR program provides complete set of tools to analyse and design bar systems with account of deplanation: to determine deplanation in the section according to static analysis, to add necessary values (warping constant) to all steel tables available in SRS-SAPR (more than 120 steel tables), to compute bimoment and check/select sections.
- In complete analysis, enhanced algorithm for selection and check of steel sections according to EuroCode 3.
- New element is added to the Report Book – 'Explanatory notes' for analysis results of selected reinforcement. There you could find all notations, abbreviations and sign conventions for analysis results.
- Updated contents in complete explanatory notes for FEA.
- For large-scale design models, corrected error in generation of tables with selected reinforcement in *.csv format.
- Added: rotation angle for the object remaines the same when the object type is changed – transforming wall into column.
- Enhanced import of models in IFC format:
- enhanced: identification of geometric location of fillings in openings and stairs;
- integrity of model is saved during the import from Renga.
- Improved option to edit analytical model of stairs – thicknesses of plates that simulate staircases and landing.
- Enhanced: option to copy windows with the base point and with the commands Paste to selected storeys, Paste selected to storey.
- Enhanced: option to edit (in groups) fillings in openings.
- Advanced check of model, namely check for coincidence of surfaces.
- During import of floor plans in DXF format, in identification of steel elements (columns, beams), in parameters of these elements, material 'Steel structures' will be defined automatically.
- Corrected error that caused renumeration of slab segments after the 'Cut off by line' command and, as a results, caused re-assignment of boundary conditions assigned to these segments.
- Corrected error that caused occurrence of duplicate piles when you selected the pile and press ENTER.
- Restored functionality of the 'Filter by parameters' dialog box when you work with beam sections.
- Enhanced rubustness of the system when saving SAPFIR objects to the library, corrected error in defining the snap point of the saved objects.
- For nodes of windows and doors, new option to generate objects along line. Width of opening is determined automatically along the length of line.
- Columns may be generated by points of intersection of grid lines at storeys where elevations are below zero (below location of grid lines).
- For separate objects generated with node, it is possible to define and save parameters that may differ from properties of node.
- Enhanced option to select nodes included into Group of nodes.
LARGE PANEL BUILDINGS
- Enhanced option to generate platform and contact joints with eccentricity.
- Corrected: auto-scaling when you add/delete elements of the model.
- Corrected: colour palette of reinforcement in auto-scaling mode.
- Corrected: analysis of reinforcement for large problems.
- Corrected: computing of reserve factor to check the pilot reinforcement by Wood theory.
- Clarified: analysis with account of creep of materials in thermal loads.
- Corrected: forces are transferred correctly from the main model to the local mode of analysis of pinned beam-column connection.
- Corrected: selection of steel sections according to SP 16.13330.2017 in analysis by reduced geometric properties.
- Corrected: options to define and edit types of pilot reinforcement (PR).
- Enhanced: algorithm for import of selected reinforcement to Autodesk Revit.
- Added: for the integrated problem, after analysis in METEOR system, it is possible to preview envelope diagrams and mosaic plots of bimoments.
- Added: new type of forced (bimoment) in DCF tables.
- Corrected: presentation of output data for crack propagation in FE 410.
- Added: animation of vibrations by analysis results of Time history analysis in new graphics based on DirectX.
- Corrected: visualization based on DirectX in case the model is merged from sub-models.
- Corrected: list of problems for analysis in METEOR system.
Enhanced work with Report Book:
- added: documentation of output data with account of warping in section in tabular format;
- corrected: work with Report Book in new graphics based on DirectX.
- For the GDI graphics, it is possible to present values for the visible face of solids with greater area.
- Added: for solids, option to present values on mosaic plots in contrast colour.
- Corrected: selection of vertical/horizontal bars with the help of construction lines.
- Added: option to save files to previous versions of the program (SAPFIR-3D 2016, SAPFIR-3D 2017) with the ‘Save as’ command.
- Modified: auto arranging for notation of elevations on all storeys is available only for ‘Elevation’ or ‘Section’ views; it is not available for plans.
- Enhanced: graphical editing for notation of elevations with the check points.
- Added: option to save the setting files of parametric filter to the folder Initial\Filters, filters are available in other work sessions, projects and may be copied to other computers.
- Corrected: presentation of loads on flight of stairs with filter by load cases.
- Corrected: option to cancel interactive editing for cutting plane in sections.
- Corrected: automatic editing of lines and contours on drawings.
- Corrected: generation of meshed model of the slab with two parametric loads (dead + live) by ‘Meshed model’ button in the ‘Project structure’ window.
- Enhanced plugin for Grasshopper + Rhinoceros
- Added: new parameters for SAPFIR components in the Grasshopper environment. Option to assign cross-section generated in Rhino to components of columns and beams. When you select SAPFIR components in the Grasshopper environment, parameters of these objects are presented in SAPFIR.
- Added: when generating physical model, option to define settings for intersections individually for every object.
- Added (SAPFIR-Generator): for the node of generating an opening, option to select storeys to which this opening will be copied.
Interoperability - components of BIM technology
Download files of this example:
Two-way integration Revit Ð LIRA-SAPR Ð Revit
Two-way integration with Autodesk Revit is presented. It includes:
- sets of families and tools for generation of analytical model in Revit, the model is as close as possible to LIRA-SAPR design model;
- option to transfer analytical model from Revit to LIRA-SAPR for strength analysis;
- option to transfer selected reinforcement from LIRA-SAPR to Revit for design of RC bearing slabs, walls, columns and beams;
- a set of tools for graphic visualization and check of reinforcement, the tools are familiar to LIRA-SAPR users but they function in REVIT environment.
New system SAPFIR-Generator
In the BIM chain, a new flexible tool is introduced - system of visual programming that allows the user to parametrically simulate buildings and structures of arbitrary shape. This system represents advanced technologies for generating models of structures. It is a graphic editor for algorithms (sequence of actions), the SAPPHIR-3D simulation tools are used in it. This new system demonstrates the current trend in the development of simulation technologies: evolution from text file, graphical environment and up to visual programming.
Plugin for Grasshopper + Rhinoceros
Plugin for Grasshopper + Rhinoceros is developed. Plugin offers a solution for transferring basic geometric shapes to full BIM elements.
This tool enables Rhino, Grasshopper and SAPFIR-3D work together in order to create and manage the BIM model through visual interface of Grasshopper scenarios.
Plugin consists of a set of components, such as generation of beams, columns, walls, slabs and surfaces for integration with SAPFIR. They are available on Grasshopper toolbar, on ‘SAPFIR’ tab. Tools of this plugin together with Grasshopper tools provide generation of 3D models in SAPFIR-3D. When the model is edited in Grasshopper or Rhinoceros, then model in SAPFIR-3D is automatically regenerated.
Tekla Structures Ð LIRA-SAP Ð Tekla Structures
Two-way integration between LIRA-SAPR 2018 and Tekla Structures 2017i. Plugin for work with Tekla Structures 2018 will be added in future version of the program (R2).
New plugin is enhanced with the following options:
- nonstandard types of sections are transferred to design model (from Tekla Structures) as stiffnesses from the Cross-section Design Toolkit module;
- reinforcement selected in LIRA-SAPR and arranged in SAPFIR-RC is now transferred to structural elements of Tekla Structures;
- more options to transfer main and additional reinnforcement to Tekla Structures through the use of tools ÇMesh Area and ÇMesh Bars by Area.
Converter Tekla Structures Ð LIRA-SAPR Ð Tekla Structures enables the user to carry out complete analysis and design of steel and RC structures.
LIRA SAPR company is an official partner of Tekla.
Unified intuitive graphic environment
Direct3D technology - graphics speed-up
Presentation of design models is based on Direct3D technology. The memory of video adapter is used. Optimized algorithms for generation of images are developed for fast and high-quality visualization of large-scale design models. In real time mode it is possible to preview and rotate the model that contains several millions of elements. LIRA-SAPR program becomes more easy-to-use when the user works with large problems (design models) at the expense of optimum useage of computer hardware.
Previous visualization system is saved, several algorithms are optimized and there is an option to switch between available methods of model presentation.
To evaluate input data, new modes of mosaic plots are provided for assigned element properties (such as stiffness, materials, pilot reinforcement). Now to select all objects with similar properties, just click the colour palette.
New option to edit (in interactive mode) range colours of the current colour palette for contour and mosaic plots. New mode when you could edit colours for colour palettes of reinforcement (number of ranges is increased up to 32).
To make the work with StB more convenient, now you could filter the list by several property columns and collapse them according to selected options.
New option to save applied frags of drawing to the user-defined set, so the settings for visual presentation of design model will be at hand.
More options in the filter for selection of structural blocks.
Panels of ribbon user interface as well as menus and toolbars in classic interface are modified; new commands are added.
In DCL tables there is a new option ÔDynamics by absolute valueÕ. It enables the user (in DCL analysis) to determine total values of displacements and forces for dynamic modules by absolute values of their components. If this option is not selected, then total values will be computed with account of signs. In this case, the sign of total value will correspond to the sign of max component by absolute value, and in wind pulsation Ð to the sign of static component.
New option to adjust the settings for current colour palette in interactive mode. To select the colour for the colour palette range, just double click certain range on the colour palette.
Loads on piers are presented in a new way, so the user could collect linear loads on foundation.
To check the loads defined with eccentricity, mosaic plot of eccentricity values on bars is available now.
For building codes based on Eurocode requirements, it is possible to generate user-defined combinations.
Assigned types of Pilot Reinforcement (PR) may be used to describe the stress-strain diagrams for reinforcement and to arrange reinforcement for nonlinear stiffnesses. With this option, it is much easier to prepare design model to physically nonlinear analysis.
To compute stresses at any section of bar according to static/dynamic analyses, forces/DCF/DCL may be now transferred to Cross-section Design Toolkit module with the interactive tables of the Report Book. Number of rows is not limited.
Tools to define and analyse bar systems with account of warping
2D and 3D bar systems may be analysed in constrained torsion, with account of warping in cross-sections of bars. So, you could carry out analyses of thin-walled bar structures by Vlasov theory.
To define and analyse design models with account of constrained torsion, the new model type (6) is used. In this case, nodes of design model have seven degrees of freedom: three translations along coordinate axes (X, Y, Z), three rotations about these axes (Ux, Uy, Uz), and translation of warping W.
New finite element of thin-walled bar (FE type 7) is provided. For FE 7, stiffness is either defined numerically (including warping stiffness E*Iw) or selected from the steel table. The seventh degree of freedom is considered when you impose restraints, coupled DOF, assign hinges to bar elements.
New types of loads are introduced: concentrated bimoment at node and on bar, bimoment uniformly distributed along bar, defined warping of cross-section.
Output data for thin-walled bar structures are presented graphically: as mosaic plots for warping at nodes of design model or diagrams and mosaic plots for bimoments in elements of the model.
When collecting loads on fragment, bimoment is added to the list of reactions at nodes of the model.
For dynamic analysis, you will also obtain mosaic plots for bimoment of inertia.
NonLinear Engineering Design 2 (NL Engineering 2)
New variant of NonLinear Engineering Design system is developed.
Stiffness parameters that correspond to ‘characteristic load case’ are computed based on step-type method for physically nonlinear structural model, where elements already have pilot reinforcement. Analysis on all further static and dynamic load cases is carried out at linear-elastic state with option to calculate DCF and DCL. In this case, stiffness parameters of elements correspond to shear modulus of elasticity computed at the last stage of analysis of nonlinear model.
As analysis results on ‘characteristic load case’ are included into DCF and DCL, then ‘characteristic load case’ should contain dead and live loads with coefficient 1. With such approach, it is possible to use the mode ‘NonLinear Engineering Design 2’ for analysis and simulation of erection process, analysis of large panel buildings (platform joints), etc. When erection is simulated, characteristic load cases may be defined at stages. ‘NonLinear Engineering Design 2’ is built on the idea of simulation of load history (step-type method) in physically nonlinear analysis by standard method.
Pushover analysis (for different building codes)
Pushover analysis is provided for multimass design model. Pushover analysis (response spectrum method for bearing caspacity) is the static nonlinear analysis in which vertically loaded design model of the structure is subjected to monotone increase in horizontal earthquake load with the check of horizontal displacement. Inertial forces (that are computed in linear analysis and correspond to the mode shape of natural vibrations with max modal mass) are considered as the earthquake load for nonlinear analysis.
Summing up mode shapes with the same frequencies
Summing up mode shapes with the same frequencies
- the structures symmetric in plan;
- the same structures located at separate foundations or common foundation.
After such summing up, one mode shape is generated for further analysis. It facilitates visual evaluation of analysis results in VISOR-SAPR module and, most importantly, it provides more correct summing up of mode shapes in calculating design combinations of loads (DCL) and design combinations of forces (DCF).
Analysis of bar systems with account of warping effect
Within this analysis, the following options are realized:
New model type 6 (X,Y,Z,UX,UY,UZ,W). In this case, nodes of design model have seven degrees of freedom (DOF): 3 translations (X,Y,Z), 3 rotations (UX,UY,UZ) and new DOF - warping (W).
- For this DOF you could impose restraints, coupled DOF, hinges (for bars), loads and initial displacements.
- For this DOF in analysis results you will obtain displacements, mode shapes, buckling modes, reactions (load on fragment), masses and inertial forces.
- New FE 7 (thin-walled bar). Stiffness for this element may be defined with numerical description ‘FE 7 numerical’. In description of this stiffness there is new parameter — warping stiffness (EIw). When you assign stiffness from the steel table, warping stiffness (EIw) and displacement of shear centre (RuY and RuZ) are calculated automatically.
- In the output data for FE 7 you will obtain the same set of forces as for FE 10 + new type — Bimoment.
- Loads with eccentricity. It concerns not only FE 7 but FE 10 as well. For concentrated, uniformly distributed and trapezoidal load you could define eccentricity relative to the gravity centre of the element. Eccentricity creates additional twisting moment. This moment generates additional mass if consistent mass matrix is selected. Additional twisting moment is computed relative to the shear centre by formulas Mk=Pz*(DY - RuY) and Mk=Py*(RuZ - DZ), where DY, DZ — eccentricity of force, RuY, RuZ — displacement of shear centre of an element relative to the gravity centre.
- Bimoment at node.
- Defined warping at node.
- Concentrated bimoment on bar.
- Uniformly distributed bimoment on bar.
Boundary finite elements of soil half-space
New finite elements that simulate behavior of 3D soil half-space in dynamic loads:
- FE 68 - triangular element;
- FE 69 - arbitrary quadrilateral element.
These elements simulate behaviour of rejected part of 3D soil half-space when considering limited 3D soil.
In addition to 28 modules for earthquake analysis according to different building codes (SNIP II-7-81/Russian Federation, NF P 06-013/France, ASCE 7.05/USA, Eurocode 8, RPA 99/Algeria, etc.), the following modules are added:
- earthquake analysis acording to SNIP KP 20-02:2017 "Earthquake engineering" (building code of Kyrgyzstan).
- earthquake analysis acording to SP PK 2.03-30-2017 "Construction is seismic areas of Kazakhstan" (Kazakhstan).
New technology is introduced: parameters of discrete reinforcement generated after linear elastic analysis are assigned to bar and plate elements. These parametes include diameters of rebars and reinforcement pattern in the section. Generated parameters may be applied to analysis of problems with engineering, physical and geometrical nonlinearity. Parameters of discrete reinforcement may be user-defined as well.
From selected reinfrocement in elements of the model and current colour palette of analysis results, new types of Pilot Reinforcement (PR) may be generated and assigned automatically.
Analysis of reinforcement in cast-in-place and precast slabs with blockouts
New technology for analysis of reinforcement in cast-in-place and precast slabs with blockouts is realized according to STO NOSTROY 2.6.15-2011. This technology (suggested by our clients and realized in LIRA-SAPR 2018) opens new horizons in simulation for engineers that design effective buildings and structures.
For our company, this is new positive experience in the implementation of advanced technologies. It opens a new direction - development of program on request.
Concrete sections with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars
In LIRA-SAPR 2018 you could analyse RC sections with FRP bazalt bars according to DSTU-H B V.2.6-185:2012. Analysis of reinforcement is carried out according to DBN B.2.6-98:2009.
In analysis of reinforcement, the following classes of PRB bars are used: ANPB 800 and ANPB 1000, they may be used only as longitudinal reinforcement. In this case, steel reinforcement is used as transverse one.
Analysis of PRB bars is provided for the following types of standard sections: rectangular bar, T-section with flange at the top, T-section with flange at the bottom, I-section, box, ring, circle, cross, angles, asymmetric T-section with flange at the top, asymmetric T-section with flange at the bottom.
Analysis of PRB bars is also available for plate elements: shells, slabs, wall-beams.
The following building code is supported: SP 63.13330.2012. Concrete and reinforced concrete structures. General notes. Annex L. (R2)
When you compose design combinations of loads (DCL) for building code CH PK EN 1990:2002+A1:2005/2011 (Kazakhstan), it is possible to edit values of bending moments in reinforced concrete beams and columns according to clause 4.29 Eurocode 8. You could edit forces only for earthquake loads included into DCL.
Punching shear analysis of slabs on soil foundation
Transverse reinforcement may be analysed at zones where column/pylon is supported with foundation slab/grillage and where column is supported with inserted floor. If soil foundation is attached to design model, punching shear force is unloaded with reactive soil pressure. For evaluation and illustration purposes, in SAPFIR program you could present contour that was applied in collecting reactions from elements of foundation slab/grillage.
Punching shear contours may be generated in SAPFIR program and in VISOR-SAPR module as well. Punching shear contours are generated automatically depending on geometry of column section, slab thickness, dimension to longitudinal reinforcement, and with account of rules for generation near the openings and slab edge.
After analysis you will obtain computed punching shear forces, area of necessary transverse reinforcement and safety factor. Output data is presented in graphic and tabular formats.
Analysis and design of steel structures according to Eurocode 3
LIRA-SAPR 2018 supports the following building codes for analysis & design of steel structures:
- EN 1993-1-1:2010 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings, and
- ÅN 1993-1-2:2005+AC 2005 (E) Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 1-2: General rules. Structural fire design.
Above-mentioned building codes and realized for selection and check for a large number of cross-sections of solid bars.
Output data is presented in graphic and tabular formats.
Results of the strength checks are presented as utilization ratio of bearing capacity according to all checks stipulated in building codes.
Fire resistance of steel structures according to Eurocode 3
The program has options to determine and visualize critical temperature in elements of the structure (temperature at which plastic hinge is generated). Thus, it is possible to determine bearing capacity of the structure with account of modification in material properties of steel in high temperatures.
Critical temperature is determined for the specified/selected section according to Eurocode 3, part 1-2 (Structural fire design).
Analysis results (critical temperature, °C) are presented as mosaic plot and in tabular format.
In local mode of STC-SAPR it is possible to check analysis of critical temperature in the section. This check is made by automatic preview of tables in the report where changes in bearing capacity of the structure are displayed depending on changes in temperature of steel. In the report you will also find changes in material properties and parameters of elements -slenderness ratio, reduction factors for buckling in bending and shear.
Database of steel tables in LIRA-SAPR
Updated databade of steel tables LIRA-SAPR:
- new steel tables according to valid building codes;
- existing steel tables are updated according to buildign codes;
- dimensions and geometric properties of profiles are checked for correspondence with values mentioned in building codes;
- geometric properties are checked, obvious misprints in building codes detected during the check are corrected.
With regard to analysis with account of warping in the section, methods for analysis of torsion and shear properties of the section were modified and new methods for analysis were added. Now with the help of FEM-analysis, in SRS-SAPR module (Steel Rolled Shapes) you could compute location of shear centre and torsion centre, twisting moment of inertia, warping constant, shear areas along principal central axes of inertia.
New tables of steels and steel profiles that are in use on the EU territory. The following building codes are supported: EN 1993-1-1, EN 10025, EN 10113, EN 10137, EN 10147, EN 10210-1, EN 10219-1, EN 10225, EN 10326, EN 10340.
Steel tables used in LIRA-SAPR for analysis of steel structures were verified in the following way:
- Section dimensions are read automatically (besides main dimension, the program reads curvature radius, changes in flange thickness along the flange length, etc.)
- By the section dimensions that were read, in the "Cross-section Design Toolkit" module you could determine all geometric properties of the shape, including torsion and shear properties, warping moment of inertia, location of torsion centre. Step of FE mesh in analysis is determined automatically and is equal to 1/5 of min thickness of web and flanges in the shape. Time for analysis of one shape in automatic mode is about 1-2 sec.
- Missing geometric properties in the verified steel table are added with computed ones.
- In case computed properties are differ from the ones available in the steel table by more than 5%, the properties are replaced with computed ones. Number of mismatches was approximately 10-12% from total number of properties. Computed properties were considered more precise as all peculiar features of the section (rounding, variable thickness of flange, etc.) were considered in analysis.
- Steel tables that were already available in the database of SRS-SAPR module (more than 100 steel tables, 100-300 shapes in every steel table) and added steel tables (more than 20 steel tables Ð see below) were verified.
New tables of steel profiles according to the following building codes:
- T-sections by EN 10055,
- angle sections by EN 10056-1,
- flat bars by EN 10058,
- hot-rolled square bars by EN 10059,
- hot-rolled round bars by EN 10060,
- channel sections PFC, UPE, UPN, I-sections HD, HE, HL, HLZ, HP, IPE, IPN, UB, UBP, UC, J by EN 10365,
- hot-rolled pipes, square and rectangular profiles by EN 10210,
- cold-formed pipes, square and rectangular profiles by EN 10219,
- angles, channels, I-sections and T-sections by ASTM A 6/A 6M,
- additional profiles by ASTM A 6/A 6M according to catalogues ArcelorMittal.
Modulus of subgrade reaction C1 in dynamic loads
One of the main types of man-caused impacts on the geological environment are vibrodynamic loads that arise during construction and maintenance of engineering structures. Such loads may cause a change in the physical and mechanical properties of the foundation soils and influence the stress-strain state of buildings and structures. Many researchers informs about increase in deformability of soils under dynamic influences in comparison with static soils. In the new version, subgrade modulus C1 in dynamic loads on foundation is calculated by Savinov's formula.
To carry out calculation, in the table with soil properties one new property is added: elastic constant Ñ0
New updatable tables of input data for documentation are introduced:
- tables with properties of RC and steel materials available in design model;
- table of hinges where you will see location of hinges in design model, their directions and stiffness values;
- tables with parameters of piers for collecting of forces; tables describe geometry of the piers.
The following updatable tables for documentation of analysis results are added:
- tables of fire resistance in steel structures according to Eurocode (ÅÑ3);
- tables of analysis results for bar systems with account of warping effect, such as bimoments on elements and warping at nodes of the model;
- tables with forces acting on piers from applied load cases, tables of design combinations of forces (DCF) and design combinations of loads (DCL);
- tables of analysis results for the check of specified reinforcement.
For strength analysis of large panel buildings, new updatable tables of input data are available for geometric properties of piers. In the mode of analysis results, this table is united with forces in piers by load cases/DCL/DCF.
It is possible to automatically save tables with input and output data to the *.csv format.
This module in version 2018 enables you to:
- generate geometry of arbitrary multi-material solid, thin-walled and combined sections of bars with complex and simple, nonstandard and standard shapes;
- define physical and mechanical properties of materials available in the section in order to determine stresses that nonlinearly depend on strains;
- compute stiffness parameters of the whole section and its components and export these parameters to VISOR-SAPR module;
- determine stress-strain state of the whole section in defined forces or forces imported from VISOR-SAPR module;
- define stress-strain diagrams for concrete of different grades and reinforcement according to SP 63.13330.2012, SNIP 2.03.01-84* and Eurocode 2;
- define stress-strain diagrams for flats and steel shapes;
- define stress-strain diagrams in tabular format;
- visualize stress-strain state as mosaic plots, contour plots and diagrams for stress;
- animate stresses in step-type increase of defined forces.
Large panel buildings
Previously developed Large panel buildings module enables you to generated design models, analyse them and evaluate analysis results in LIRA-SAPR environment. This module is now enhanced with new options.
For monolithic and panel buildings, the zone above the window and door openings may be automatically simulated as bar (lintel). Section of bar is computed automatically and presented only in analytical model.
When arranging joints, it is possible to save gaps that exist in the model between panels.
Joints and their labels may be visualized on documentation views (plans and sections).
Within the same joint the user could define connecting pieces of different stiffness and that connect different number of panels. For illustration purposes, connecting pieces are presented in different colour.
List of joints includes all labels of joints available in the model. Components of joint (summary) and number of copies of every label in the model are provided. The list may be used to edit properties for selected label of joint.
Joints may be labelled automatically according to selected properties: diagram of panel connection, structural presentation of joint, variant of arrangement and settings for connecting pieces, length of joint.
Models (walls, slabs, columns, beams, axes) are aligned automatically. This option improves quality of the model by aligning objects parallel to coordinate axes. Coordinates of elements are reduces to modular grid.
Places where panels are not connected with joints may be visualized.Enhanced algorithm of automatic arrangement of joints, etc.
The system response speed during model generation is increased when you work with large number of objects (about 5000). In SAPFIR 2017 and earlier versions, when you worked with large model you could not complete generation of objects up to the time when the Project Structure was updated. In version 2018, this procedure is separated in a parallel process and generation of object now does not depend on updating the Project Structure.
New option to limit the visible volume (view cube). Part of the model outside the cube limit is visually cut off by six planes and becomes invisible. You can automatically set the visible volume according to dimensions of the active storey (with CTRL) or to dimensions of the selected objects (with SHIFT). The edges in sections of structural elements are displayed with hatching corresponding to materials assigned to them.
Now you could define the value of the constant component for loads that are specified as a property of slab. For each of the loads, you could select the load case where it is included. By default, 3 load cases are now generated for slabs: dead loads, live loads and short-term loads.
For capitals and isolated footings it is possible to define different values for width and length of the stage.
New tools are implemented for editing procedure:
- cut objects and remove the inner part (punching shear contour, lines);
- cut off objects along a specified line (punching shear contour, lines, beams and analytical model of beams).
New functions are added for documentation:
- automatic generation of a leader line for small dimensions that do not fit between trick marks;
- semi-automatic selection of a quadrant for placing a leader line with the object label.
The SAPFIR program is adapted to work with high-resolution monitors UHD or 4K. All dialog boxes are adapted; new, larger set of icons for all tabs is introduced; icons on the toolbars are increased. With such adaptation of the interface, you could use both 4K monitors and standard FullHD.